:: Counting Derangements, Counting Non Bijective Functions and the Birthday
:: Problem
:: by Cezary Kaliszyk
::
:: Received February 23, 2010
:: Copyright (c) 2010-2016 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies FUNCT_1, INT_1, ARYTM_1, ARYTM_3, CARD_1, FUNCT_2, NAT_1, CARD_3,
FINSET_1, ORDINAL2, RPR_1, CARDFIN2, ABIAN, POWER, COMPLEX1, AFINSQ_1,
RELAT_1, XCMPLX_0, SIN_COS, SERIES_1, TAYLOR_1, SUBSET_1, FDIFF_1,
FINSEQ_1, TARSKI, REAL_1, FINSOP_1, NEWTON, ORDINAL1, REALSET1, XXREAL_0,
XBOOLE_0, XXREAL_1, VALUED_1, NUMBERS, BINOP_2, FUNCT_7;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1, RELSET_1,
PARTFUN1, FUNCT_2, BINOP_1, FINSET_1, CARD_1, NUMBERS, XCMPLX_0,
XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, REAL_1, NAT_D, INT_1, NAT_1, COMPLEX1, BINOP_2,
VALUED_1, NEWTON, RCOMP_1, FCONT_1, POWER, SERIES_1, SEQFUNC, SIN_COS,
AFINSQ_1, ABIAN, TAYLOR_1, RPR_1, AFINSQ_2;
constructors REAL_1, SERIES_1, ABIAN, RCOMP_1, SIN_COS, TAYLOR_1, FCONT_1,
SEQFUNC, RELSET_1, SETWISEO, YELLOW20, WELLORD2, NAT_D, BINARITH, RPR_1,
AFINSQ_2, NEWTON, BINOP_2;
registrations RELSET_1, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, NAT_1, INT_1, MEMBERED, CARD_1,
FINSET_1, NUMBERS, SIN_COS, RCOMP_1, VALUED_0, VALUED_1, FUNCT_2,
FCONT_3, FCONT_1, AFINSQ_1, POWER, FUNCT_1, BINOP_2, XCMPLX_0, XBOOLE_0,
RELAT_1, FRAENKEL, AFINSQ_2, ORDINAL1, NEWTON;
requirements REAL, NUMERALS, SUBSET, BOOLE, ARITHM;
definitions XBOOLE_0, TARSKI;
equalities XCMPLX_0, SUBSET_1, SIN_COS, CARD_1, ORDINAL1;
theorems CARD_2, CARD_FIN, FUNCT_2, XBOOLE_0, NEWTON, XREAL_0, XCMPLX_1,
RPR_1, XREAL_1, XCMPLX_0, INT_1, ORDINAL1, CARD_1, TAYLOR_1, SIN_COS,
TAYLOR_2, XXREAL_1, ABIAN, STIRL2_1, SERIES_1, SEQ_1, SIN_COS2, NAT_1,
TARSKI, BINOP_2, IRRAT_1, SEQ_2, FIB_NUM2, SIN_COS7, XXREAL_0, RELAT_1,
VALUED_1, FUNCT_1, AFINSQ_2, XBOOLE_1, POWER;
schemes RECDEF_2, FIB_NUM, NAT_1;
begin :: Preliminaries
reserve x, y for set;
registration :: Could be moved to SIN_COS
let c be Real;
cluster exp_R(c) -> positive;
coherence by SIN_COS:55;
end;
registration :: TAYLOR_1
cluster number_e -> positive;
coherence by TAYLOR_1:11;
end;
theorem Th1:
id {} is without_fixpoints
proof
assume id {} is with_fixpoint; then
consider y being object such that
A1: y is_a_fixpoint_of (id {}) by ABIAN:def 5;
y in dom (id {}) by A1,ABIAN:def 3;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th2:
for c be Real st c < 0 holds exp_R c < 1
proof
let c be Real;
assume c < 0;
then exp_R c <= 1 & exp_R c <> 1 by SIN_COS:53,SIN_COS7:29;
hence thesis by XXREAL_0:1;
end;
begin :: Rounding
definition
let n be Real;
func round n -> Integer equals
[\ n + 1 / 2 /];
coherence;
end;
theorem
for a being Integer holds round a = a
proof
let a be Integer;
a - 1/2 < a - 0 by XREAL_1:6; then
a + (0 qua Nat) <= a + 1/2 & a + 1/2 - 1 < a - 0 by XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by INT_1:def 6;
end;
theorem Th4:
for a being Integer for b being Real st |. a - b .| < 1/2 holds
a = round b
proof
let a be Integer;
let b be Real;
assume
A1: |. a - b .| < 1/2;
then a - b < 1/2 by SEQ_2:1; then
A2: a - b + b < 1/2 + b by XREAL_1:8;
-1/2 < a - b by A1,SEQ_2:1;
then -(a - b) < -(-1/2) by XREAL_1:24;
then b - a + a < 1/2 + a by XREAL_1:8;
then b - 1/2 < a + 1/2 - 1/2 by XREAL_1:14;
then b + 1/2 - 1 < a;
hence thesis by A2,INT_1:def 6;
end;
begin :: Counting derangements
theorem Th5:
for n be Nat for a, b be Real st a < b holds
ex c be Real st c in ].a, b.[
& exp_R a = Partial_Sums(Taylor(exp_R, [#]REAL, b, a)).n
+ exp_R c * (a-b) |^ (n+1) / ((n+1)!)
proof
let n be Nat;
let a, b be Real;
assume
A1: a < b;
set f = exp_R;
set Z = [#]REAL;
n in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12; then
A2: exp_R is_differentiable_on n, Z by TAYLOR_2:10;
diff(exp_R, Z).n = f|Z by TAYLOR_2:6; then
A3: (diff(exp_R, Z).n)|[.a, b.] is continuous;
A4: exp_R is_differentiable_on (n+1), ].a, b.[ by TAYLOR_2:10;
consider c be Real such that
A5: c in ].a, b.[ and
A6: exp_R . a = Partial_Sums(Taylor(exp_R, Z, b, a)).n
+ (diff(exp_R, ].a, b.[).(n+1)).c * (a-b) |^ (n+1) / ((n+1)!)
by A1,A2,A3,A4,SIN_COS:47,TAYLOR_1:29;
take c;
thus thesis by A6,A5,TAYLOR_2:7;
end;
theorem Th6:
for n be positive Nat for c be Real st c < 0 holds
|. -n! * (exp_R c * (-1) |^ (n+1) / ((n+1)!)) .| < 1/2
proof
let n be positive Nat;
let c be Real;
n >= (0 qua Nat) + 1 by NAT_1:13;
then n + 1 >= 1 + 1 by XREAL_1:6; then
A1: exp_R c / (n + 1) <= exp_R c / 2 by XREAL_1:118;
assume c < 0;
then exp_R c / 2 < 1/2 by Th2,XREAL_1:74; then
A2: exp_R c / (n + 1) < 1/2 by A1,XXREAL_0:2;
A3: |. exp_R c * ((-1) |^ n) / (n+1) .| < 1/2
proof
per cases;
suppose
A4: n is even;
A5: (-1) |^ n = (-1) to_power n .= 1 to_power n by A4,POWER:47
.= 1;
-1/2 < exp_R c / (n+1);
hence thesis by A5,A2,SEQ_2:1;
end;
suppose
A6: n is odd;
A7: (-1) |^ n = (-1) to_power n .= -1 by A6,FIB_NUM2:2;
-1/2 < -(exp_R c / (n+1)) by A2,XREAL_1:24;
hence thesis by A7,SEQ_2:1;
end;
end;
exp_R c * ((-1) |^ n) / (n+1)
= exp_R c * ((-1) * (((-1) |^ n) * (-1))) / (n+1)
.= exp_R c * ((-1) * ((-1) |^ (n + 1))) / (n+1) by NEWTON:6
.= -(exp_R c * ((-1) |^ (n+1)) * (1 / (n+1)))
.= -(exp_R c * ((-1) |^ (n+1)) * (((n!) / (n!)) / (n+1))) by XCMPLX_1:60
.= -(exp_R c * ((-1) |^ (n+1)) * ((n!) / ((n!) * (n+1)))) by XCMPLX_1:78
.= -(exp_R c * ((-1) |^ (n+1)) * (n!) / ((n+1) * (n!)))
.= -(n! * exp_R c * ((-1) |^ (n+1)) / ((n+1)!)) by NEWTON:15;
hence |. -n! * (exp_R c * (-1) |^ (n+1) / ((n+1)!)) .| < 1/2 by A3;
end;
definition
let s be set;
func derangements (s) -> set equals
{ f where f is Permutation of s : f is without_fixpoints };
coherence;
end;
registration
let s be finite set;
cluster derangements(s) -> finite;
coherence
proof
A1: card{F where F is Function of s, s:F is Permutation of s}=card s!
by CARD_FIN:8;
derangements(s) c= {F where F is Function of s, s:F is Permutation of s}
proof
let x be object;
assume x in derangements(s);
then ex f be Permutation of s st x = f & f is without_fixpoints;
hence thesis;
end;
then card derangements(s) c= (card s)! by A1,CARD_1:11;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem Th7:
for s being finite set holds derangements s = {h where h is Function of
s, s: h is one-to-one & for x st x in s holds h.x<>x}
proof
let s be finite set;
set xx = {h where h is Function of s, s: h is one-to-one &
for x st x in s holds h.x<>x};
hereby let x be object;
assume x in derangements s;
then consider f be Permutation of s such that
A1: x = f & f is without_fixpoints;
for y being set holds y in s implies f.y <> y by A1,ABIAN:def 4,def 5;
hence x in xx by A1;
end;
let x be object;
assume x in xx;
then consider h be Function of s, s such that
A2: x = h & h is one-to-one & for x st x in s holds h.x<>x;
card s = card s; then
A3: h is onto by A2,STIRL2_1:60;
now
let y be object;
assume y is_a_fixpoint_of h;
then y in dom h & h.y = y by ABIAN:def 3;
hence contradiction by A2;
end;
then h is without_fixpoints by ABIAN:def 5;
hence x in derangements s by A3,A2;
end;
theorem Th8:
for s being non empty finite set ex c being Real st c in ]. -1, 0 .[ &
card(derangements s) - (((card s)!) / number_e) =
-(card s)! * (exp_R c * (-1) |^ ((card s)+1) / (((card s)+1)!))
proof
let s be non empty finite set;
set n = card s;
consider XF be XFinSequence of INT such that
A1: Sum XF=card {h where h is Function of s, s: h is one-to-one
& for x st x in s holds h.x<>x} and
A2: dom XF = n+1 and
A3: for m be Nat st m in dom XF holds XF.m=((-1)|^m)*(n!)/(m!) by CARD_FIN:63;
A4: Sum XF = card (derangements s) by A1,Th7;
set T = Taylor(exp_R, [#]REAL, 0, -1);
consider c be Real such that
A5: c in ]. -1, 0 .[
& exp_R (-1) = Partial_Sums(T).n + exp_R c * (-1-0) |^ (n+1) / ((n+1)!)
by Th5;
Partial_Sums(n!(#)T) = n!(#)Partial_Sums(T) by SERIES_1:9;
then
A6: Partial_Sums(n!(#)T) . n = n! * (Partial_Sums(T) . n) by SEQ_1:9;
Partial_Sums(n!(#)T) . n = Sum (XF)
proof
consider f be sequence of INT such that
A7: f.0 = XF . 0 and
A8: for n be Nat st n + 1 < len XF holds f.(n+1) =
addint . (f.n, XF.(n+1)) and
A9: addint "**" XF = f.(len XF - 1) by A2,AFINSQ_2:def 8;
A10: Sum XF = f.(len XF - 1) by A9,AFINSQ_2:50;
defpred P[Nat] means $1 in Segm(n+1) implies
Partial_Sums(n!(#)T) . $1 = f.($1);
A11: 0 in REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
A12: P[0]
proof
0 in Segm(n+1) by NAT_1:44;
then
A13: 0 in dom XF by A2;
Partial_Sums(n!(#)T) . 0 = (n!(#)T) . 0 by SERIES_1:def 1
.= n! * T . 0 by SEQ_1:9
.= n! * ((diff(exp_R, [#]REAL).0).0 * (-1 - 0) |^ 0 / (0!))
by TAYLOR_1:def 7
.= n! * (1 * (-1) |^ 0 / (0!)) by SIN_COS2:13,TAYLOR_2:7,A11
.= (n! * (-1) |^ 0 / (0!))
.= f.0 by A3,A13,A7;
hence thesis;
end;
A14: for j be Nat st P[j] holds P[j+1]
proof
let j be Nat such that
A15: P[j];
set j1 = j+1;
assume
A16: j+1 in Segm(n+1); then
A17: j+1 < n+1 by NAT_1:44; then
A18: j < n + 1 by NAT_1:13;
(n!(#)T) . j1 = n! * T . j1 by SEQ_1:9
.= n! * ((diff(exp_R, [#]REAL).j1).0 * (-1 - 0) |^ j1 / (j1!))
by TAYLOR_1:def 7
.= n! * (1 * (-1) |^ j1 / (j1!)) by SIN_COS2:13,TAYLOR_2:7,A11
.= (n! * (-1) |^ j1 / (j1!))
.= XF.j1 by A3,A16,A2;
hence Partial_Sums(n!(#)T) . (j + 1) = f.(j) + XF.j1
by A15,A18,NAT_1:44,SERIES_1:def 1
.= addint . (f.j, XF.j1) by BINOP_2:def 20
.= f.j1 by A8,A17,A2;
end;
for j be Nat holds P[j] from NAT_1:sch 2(A12, A14);
hence thesis by A10,A2,NAT_1:45;
end;
then A19:card (derangements s) + n! * (exp_R c * (-1) |^ (n+1) / ((n+1)!))
= n! * exp_R (-1) by A4,A5,A6
.= n! * (1 / exp_R 1) by TAYLOR_1:4
.= n! / number_e by IRRAT_1:def 7;
take c;
thus c in ]. -1, 0 .[ by A5;
thus card(derangements s) - (((card s)!) / number_e) =
-n! * (exp_R c * (-1) |^ (n+1) / ((n+1)!)) by A19;
end;
theorem Th9:
for s being non empty finite set
holds |. card(derangements s) - (((card s)!) / number_e) .| < 1/2
proof
let s be non empty finite set;
set n = card s;
consider c being Real such that
A1: c in ]. -1, 0 .[ and
A2: card(derangements s) - (((n)!) / number_e) =
-(n)! * (exp_R c * (-1) |^ ((n)+1) / (((n)+1)!)) by Th8;
c < 0 by A1,XXREAL_1:4;
hence thesis by A2,Th6;
end;
theorem Th10:
for s being non empty finite set
holds card(derangements s) = round ((card s)! / number_e)
proof
let s be non empty finite set;
|. card(derangements s) - (((card s)!) / number_e) .| < 1/2 by Th9;
hence card(derangements s) = round ((card s)! / number_e) by Th4;
end;
theorem Th11:
derangements {} = {{}}
proof
hereby let x be object;
assume x in derangements {}; then
ex f be Permutation of {} st x = f & f is without_fixpoints;
hence x in {{}} by FUNCT_2:9,127;
end;
let x be object;
assume x in {{}}; then
A1: x = {} by TARSKI:def 1;
rng (id {}) = {};
then id {} is Permutation of {} by FUNCT_2:57;
hence thesis by A1,Th1;
end;
theorem Th12:
for x being object holds derangements { x } = {}
proof let x be object;
A1: card { x } = 1 by CARD_1:30;
1 / number_e < 1/2 by TAYLOR_1:11,XREAL_1:76;
then -(1/2) < -1/number_e by XREAL_1:24;
then |. (0 qua Nat) - 1 / number_e .| < 1/2 by SEQ_2:1;
then round(1 / number_e) = 0 by Th4;
then card(derangements { x }) = 0 by Th10,A1,NEWTON:13;
hence thesis;
end;
:: Needed in both proofs of the following definition
reconsider j = 1, z = 0 as Element of INT by INT_1:def 2;
deffunc F(Nat, Integer, Integer) = In(($1 + 1) * ($2 + $3),INT);
definition
func der_seq -> sequence of INT means
:Def3: it.0 = 1 & it.1 = 0 & for n being Nat
holds it.(n + 2) = (n + 1) * (it.n + it.(n + 1));
existence
proof
consider f being sequence of INT such that
A1: f.0 = j & f.1 = z
& for n being Nat holds f.(n+2) = F(n, f.n, f.(n+1))
from RECDEF_2:sch 5;
take f;
thus f.0 = 1 & f.1 = 0 by A1;
let n be Nat;
f.(n+2) = F(n, f.n, f.(n+1)) by A1;
hence f.(n + 2) = (n + 1) * (f.n + f.(n + 1));
end;
uniqueness
proof
let f, g be sequence of INT;
assume f.0 = 1 & f.1 = 0; then
A2: f.0 = j & f.1 = z;
assume for n being Nat
holds f.(n+2) = (n + 1) * (f.n + f.(n + 1)); then
A3: for n being Nat holds f.(n+2) = F(n, f.n, f.(n+1));
assume g.0 = 1 & g.1 = 0; then
A4: g.0 = j & g.1 = z;
assume for n being Nat
holds g.(n+2) = (n + 1) * (g.n + g.(n + 1)); then
A5: for n being Nat holds g.(n+2) = F(n, g.n, g.(n+1));
thus f = g from RECDEF_2:sch 7(A2, A3, A4, A5);
end;
end;
registration
let c be Integer;
let F be XFinSequence of INT;
cluster c (#) F -> finite INT-valued Sequence-like;
coherence;
end;
registration
let c be Complex;
let F be empty Function;
cluster c (#) F -> empty;
coherence;
end;
theorem
for F be XFinSequence of INT for c be Integer holds
c * Sum F = Sum ((c (#) F) | (len F -' 1)) + c * F.(len F -' 1)
proof
let F be XFinSequence of INT;
let c be Integer;
per cases;
suppose len F = 0; then
A1: F is empty & F.(len F -' 1) = 0 by FUNCT_1:def 2;
then Sum F = 0;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
suppose len F > 0; then
A2: len F -' 1 + 1 = len F by NAT_1:14,XREAL_1:235;
A3: dom F = dom (c (#) F) by VALUED_1:def 5;
A4: c * Sum F = Sum (c (#) F) by AFINSQ_2:64;
A5: Sum (c (#) F) = Sum((c (#) F) | len F) by A3;
len F -' 1 in Segm len F by A2,NAT_1:45;
then Sum ((c (#) F) | (len F -' 1 + 1)) =
(Sum ((c (#) F) | (len F -' 1))) + (c (#) F).(len F -' 1)
by A3,AFINSQ_2:65;
hence thesis by A4,A5,A2,VALUED_1:6;
end;
end;
:: This theorem is symmetric to the previous one. Since we use Integers
:: we cannot divide and it has to be proved separately.
theorem Th14:
for X, N be XFinSequence of INT st len N = len X + 1
for c be Integer st (N | len X) = c (#) X
holds Sum N = c * Sum X + N.(len X)
proof
let X, N be XFinSequence of INT;
assume
A1: len N = len X + 1;
let c be Integer;
assume
A2: (N | len X) = c (#) X;
A3: len X in Segm len N by A1,NAT_1:45;
thus Sum N = Sum (N | (len N))
.= Sum (N | len X) + N.(len X) by A1,AFINSQ_2:65,A3
.= c * Sum X + N.(len X) by A2,AFINSQ_2:64;
end;
theorem
for s being finite set holds der_seq.(card s) = card (derangements s)
proof
let s be finite set;
defpred P[finite set] means
for s being finite set holds card s = $1 implies
der_seq.($1) = card(derangements s);
A1: P[0]
proof
let s be finite set;
assume card s = 0; then
A2: s = {};
thus der_seq.0 = 1 by Def3
.= card(derangements s) by Th11,A2,CARD_1:30;
end;
A3: P[1]
proof
let s be finite set;
assume card s = 1; then
consider x being object such that
A4: s = {x} by CARD_2:42;
thus der_seq.1 = card({}) by Def3
.= card(derangements s) by Th12,A4;
end;
A5: for n being Nat st P[n] & P[n+1] holds P[n+2]
proof
let n be Nat;
assume
A6: P[n];
assume
A7: P[n+1];
set n1 = n + 1;
A8: card n = n & card n1 = n + 1;
then consider XFn be XFinSequence of INT such that
A9: Sum XFn=card {h where h is Function of n, n: h is one-to-one
& for x st x in n holds h.x<>x} and
A10: dom XFn = n+1 and
A11: for m be Nat st m in dom XFn
holds XFn.m=((-1)|^m)*(n!)/(m!) by CARD_FIN:63;
consider XFn1 be XFinSequence of INT such that
A12: Sum XFn1=card {h where h is Function of n1, n1: h is one-to-one
& for x st x in n1 holds h.x<>x} and
A13: dom XFn1 = Segm((n+1)+1) and
A14: for m be Nat st m in dom XFn1
holds XFn1.m=((-1)|^m)*((n+1)!)/(m!) by A8,CARD_FIN:63;
Sum XFn=card(derangements n) by A9,Th7; then
A15: der_seq.n = Sum XFn by A6,A8;
Sum XFn1=card(derangements n1) by A12,Th7; then
A16: der_seq.(n + 1) = Sum XFn1 by A7,A8;
let sn2 be finite set;
assume card sn2 = n + 2;
then consider XFn2 be XFinSequence of INT such that
A17: Sum XFn2=card {h where h is Function of sn2, sn2: h is one-to-one
& for x st x in sn2 holds h.x<>x} and
A18: dom XFn2 = Segm((n+2)+1) and
A19: for m be Nat st m in dom XFn2
holds XFn2.m=((-1)|^m)*((n+2)!)/(m!) by CARD_FIN:63;
A20: Sum XFn2=card(derangements sn2) by A17,Th7;
A21: len XFn1 = len XFn + 1 by A10,A13;
A22: len XFn2 = len XFn1 + 1 by A13,A18;
n + 1 < n + 2 by XREAL_1:8;
then Segm(n+1) c= Segm(n+2) by NAT_1:39;
then
A23: len XFn c= dom XFn1 by A10,A13;
A24: dom ((n + 1) (#) XFn) = len XFn by VALUED_1:def 5;
A25: now
let x be object;
assume
A26: x in dom (XFn1 | len XFn);
then
A27: x in dom XFn1 by RELAT_1:57;
reconsider m = x as Element of NAT by A26;
A28: m in dom XFn by A26,RELAT_1:57;
thus (XFn1 | len XFn).x = XFn1.x by A26,FUNCT_1:47
.= ( (-1)|^m)*((n+1)!)/(m!) by A27,A14
.= ( (-1)|^m)*(n! * (n+1))/(m!) by NEWTON:15
.= (n + 1) * (( (-1)|^m)*(n!)/(m!))
.= (n + 1) * XFn.m by A11,A28
.= ((n + 1) (#) XFn). x by VALUED_1:6;
end;
set a = (-1) |^ (n + 1);
A29: (-1) * a = (-1) |^ (n + 1 + 1) by NEWTON:6;
n + 1 + (0 qua Nat) < n + 1 + 1 by XREAL_1:8; then
A30: n + 1 in dom XFn1 by A13,NAT_1:44;
n + 2 + (0 qua Nat) < n + 2 + 1 by XREAL_1:8; then
A31: n + 2 in dom XFn2 by A18,NAT_1:44;
(XFn1 | len XFn) = (n + 1) (#) XFn by A23,A24,A25,FUNCT_1:2,RELAT_1:62;
then
A32: Sum XFn1 = (n + 1) * (Sum XFn) + XFn1 . (len XFn) by Th14,A21
.= (n + 1) * (Sum XFn) + a * ((n+1)!) / ((n+1)!) by A10,A14,A30
.= (n + 1) * (Sum XFn) + a * (((n+1)!)/((n+1)!))
.= (n + 1) * (Sum XFn) + a * 1 by XCMPLX_1:60;
A33: now
let x be object;
assume
A34: x in dom (XFn2 | len XFn1);
then
A35: x in dom XFn2 by RELAT_1:57;
reconsider m = x as Element of NAT by A34;
A36: m in dom XFn1 by A34,RELAT_1:57;
thus (XFn2 | len XFn1).x = XFn2.x by A34,FUNCT_1:47
.= ( (-1)|^m)*((n+1+1)!)/(m!) by A35,A19
.= ( (-1)|^m)*((n+1)! * (n+1+1))/(m!) by NEWTON:15
.= (n + 1 + 1) * (( (-1)|^m)*((n+1)!)/(m!))
.= (n + 2) * XFn1.m by A14,A36
.= ((n + 2) (#) XFn1). x by VALUED_1:6;
end;
n + 2 < n + 3 by XREAL_1:8; then
len XFn1 c= dom XFn2 by A13,A18,NAT_1:39; then
A37: dom (XFn2 | len XFn1) = len XFn1 by RELAT_1:62;
dom ((n + 2) (#) XFn1) = len XFn1 by VALUED_1:def 5;
then Sum XFn2 = (n + 2) * (Sum XFn1) + XFn2 . (len XFn1)
by Th14,A22,A37,A33,FUNCT_1:2
.= (n + 2) * (Sum XFn1) + ((-1)|^(n + 2)) *((n+2)!)/((n+2)!)
by A19,A31,A13
.= (n + 2) * (Sum XFn1) + (-a) * (((n+2)!)/((n+2)!)) by A29
.= (n + 2) * (Sum XFn1) + (-a) * 1 by XCMPLX_1:60
.= (n + 1) * (Sum XFn + Sum XFn1) by A32;
hence der_seq.(n + 2) = card(derangements sn2) by A20,Def3,A15,A16;
end;
for n being Nat holds P[n] from FIB_NUM:sch 1(A1, A3, A5);
hence thesis;
end;
begin :: Counting not-one-to-one functions and the birthday problem
definition let s, t be set;
func not-one-to-one (s, t) -> Subset of Funcs(s, t) equals
{f where f is Function of s, t : f is not one-to-one};
coherence
proof
per cases;
suppose A1: t is non empty;
{f where f is Function of s, t : f is not one-to-one} c= Funcs (s,t)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in {f where f is Function of s, t : f is not one-to-one};
then ex f being Function of s, t st x = f & f is not one-to-one;
hence thesis by A1,FUNCT_2:8;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
suppose A2: t is empty;
{f where f is Function of s, t : f is not one-to-one} = {}
proof
assume {f where f is Function of s, t : f is not one-to-one} <> {};
then consider x being object such that A3: x in
{f where f is Function of s, t : f is not one-to-one}
by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
ex f being Function of s, t st x = f & f is not one-to-one by A3;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:2;
end;
end;
end;
registration let s, t be finite set;
cluster not-one-to-one (s, t) -> finite;
coherence;
end;
scheme FraenkelDiff {s, t() -> set, P[object]} :
{f where f is Function of s(), t() : not P[f]} =
Funcs(s(), t()) \ {f where f is Function of s(), t() : P[f]}
provided
A1: t() = {} implies s() = {}
proof
set z1 = {f where f is Function of s(), t() : not P[f]};
set z2 = {f where f is Function of s(), t() : P[f]};
set zc = Funcs(s(), t());
thus z1 c= zc \ z2
proof
let x be object;
assume x in z1;
then consider f be Function of s(), t() such that A2: x = f & not P[f];
A3: f in zc by A1,FUNCT_2:8;
not f in z2
proof
assume f in z2;
then ex g being Function of s(), t() st f = g & P[g];
hence thesis by A2;
end;
hence thesis by A3,A2,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
end;
let x be object;
assume
A4: x in zc \ z2;
then
A5: x is Function of s(), t() by FUNCT_2:66;
not x in z2 by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then not P[x] by A5;
hence thesis by A5;
end;
theorem Th16:
for s, t being finite set st card s <= card t
holds card (not-one-to-one (s, t)) =
(card t |^ card s) - ((card t)! / ((card t -' card s)!))
proof
let s, t be finite set such that A1: card s <= card t;
defpred P[Function] means $1 is one-to-one;
set onetoone = {f where f is Function of s, t : f is one-to-one};
A2: t = {} implies s = {}
by A1;
onetoone c= Funcs(s, t)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in onetoone;
then ex f be Function of s, t st x = f & f is one-to-one;
hence thesis by A2,FUNCT_2:8;
end;
then reconsider onetoone as Subset of Funcs(s, t);
{f where f is Function of s, t : not P[f]} =
Funcs(s, t) \ {f where f is Function of s, t : P[f]}
from FraenkelDiff(A2);
then
card (not-one-to-one (s, t)) =
card(Funcs(s, t)) - card(onetoone) by CARD_2:44
.= card(Funcs(s, t)) -
((card t)! / ((card t -' card s)!)) by A1,CARD_FIN:7
.= (card t) |^ (card s) -
((card t)! / ((card t -' card s)!)) by A2,CARD_FIN:4;
hence thesis;
end;
Lm1:
2 * ((365 |^ 23) - (365! / ((365 -' 23)!))) > 365 |^ 23
proof
A1: (364 + 1)! = 364! * (364 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A2: (363 + 1)! = 363! * (363 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A3: (362 + 1)! = 362! * (362 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A4: (361 + 1)! = 361! * (361 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A5: (360 + 1)! = 360! * (360 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A6: (359 + 1)! = 359! * (359 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A7: (358 + 1)! = 358! * (358 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A8: (357 + 1)! = 357! * (357 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A9: (356 + 1)! = 356! * (356 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A10: (355 + 1)! = 355! * (355 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A11: (354 + 1)! = 354! * (354 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A12: (353 + 1)! = 353! * (353 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A13: (352 + 1)! = 352! * (352 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A14: (351 + 1)! = 351! * (351 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A15: (350 + 1)! = 350! * (350 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A16: (349 + 1)! = 349! * (349 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A17: (348 + 1)! = 348! * (348 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A18: (347 + 1)! = 347! * (347 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A19: (346 + 1)! = 346! * (346 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A20: (345 + 1)! = 345! * (345 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A21: (344 + 1)! = 344! * (344 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
A22: (343 + 1)! = 343! * (343 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
(342 + 1)! = 342! * (342 + 1) by NEWTON:15;
then 365! = (365 * 364 * 363 * 362 * 361 * 360)
* (359 * 358 * 357 * 356 * 355 * 354 * 353)
* (352 * 351 * 350 * 349 * 348 * 347 * 346 * 345 * 344 * 343)
* (342!) by A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,A11,A12,A13,A14,A15,A16
,A17,A18,A19,A20,A21,A22;
then
A23: (365!) / (342!) = (365 * 364 * 363 * 362 * 361 * 360)
* (359 * 358 * 357 * 356 * 355 * 354 * 353)
* (352 * 351 * 350 * 349 * 348 * 347 * 346 * 345 * 344 * 343)
by XCMPLX_1:89;
365 |^ 1 = 365;
then
A24: 365 |^ (1 + 1) = 365 * 365 by NEWTON:6;
then
A25: 365 |^ (2 + 1) = 365 * 365 * 365 by NEWTON:6;
A26: 365 |^ (3 + 2) = 365 |^ 3 * 365 |^ 2 by NEWTON:8;
A27: 365 |^ (3 + 3) = 365 |^ 3 * 365 |^ 3 by NEWTON:8;
A28: 365 |^ (6 + 5) = 365 |^ 6 * 365 |^ 5 by NEWTON:8;
A29: 365 |^ (6 + 6) = 365 |^ 6 * 365 |^ 6 by NEWTON:8;
365 |^ (12 + 11) = 365 |^ 12 * 365 |^ 11 by NEWTON:8;
then A30: 2 * ((365 |^ 23) - (365! / (342!))) > 365 |^ 23
by A28,A23,A29,A26,A24,A25,A27;
365 - 23 >= 0;
hence 2 * ((365 |^ 23) - (365! / ((365 -' 23)!))) >
365 |^ 23 by A30,XREAL_0:def 2;
end;
theorem Th17:
for s being finite set, t being non empty finite set
st card s = 23 & card t = 365
holds 2 * card (not-one-to-one (s, t)) > card Funcs (s, t)
proof
let s be finite set, t be non empty finite set;
assume A1: card s = 23;
assume A2: card t = 365;
then card (not-one-to-one (s, t)) = (365 |^ 23) - (365! / ((365 -' 23)!))
by Th16,A1;
hence 2 * card (not-one-to-one (s, t)) > card Funcs (s, t)
by Lm1,A1,A2,CARD_FIN:4;
end;
theorem
for s, t being non empty finite set st card s = 23 & card t = 365
holds prob (not-one-to-one (s, t)) > 1/2
proof
let s, t be non empty finite set;
assume A1: card s = 23;
assume A2: card t = 365;
set E = not-one-to-one (s, t);
set comega = card Funcs (s, t);
2 * card E / 2 > comega / 2 by Th17,A1,A2,XREAL_1:74;
then card E / comega > comega / 2 / comega by XREAL_1:74;
then card E / comega > comega / comega / 2;
then card E / comega > 1 / 2 by XCMPLX_0:def 7;
hence prob E > 1/2 by RPR_1:def 1;
end;