:: Operations on Subspaces in Real Linear Space
:: by Wojciech A. Trybulec
::
:: Received September 20, 1989
:: Copyright (c) 1990-2016 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies RLVECT_1, RLSUB_1, REAL_1, ARYTM_3, STRUCT_0, SUBSET_1, TARSKI,
SUPINF_2, XBOOLE_0, ARYTM_1, ZFMISC_1, FUNCT_1, RELAT_1, ALGSTR_0,
CARD_1, FINSEQ_4, MCART_1, BINOP_1, LATTICES, EQREL_1, PBOOLE, RLSUB_2;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, BINOP_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1,
ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, LATTICES, XCMPLX_0, XREAL_0, REAL_1, RELSET_1,
STRUCT_0, ALGSTR_0, RLVECT_1, RLSUB_1, DOMAIN_1;
constructors BINOP_1, REAL_1, MEMBERED, REALSET1, LATTICES, RLSUB_1;
registrations SUBSET_1, MEMBERED, STRUCT_0, LATTICES, RLVECT_1, RLSUB_1,
RELAT_1, XREAL_0, XTUPLE_0;
requirements NUMERALS, SUBSET, BOOLE;
definitions LATTICES, RLSUB_1, TARSKI, XBOOLE_0;
equalities LATTICES, RLSUB_1, XBOOLE_0, RLVECT_1;
expansions LATTICES, RLSUB_1, TARSKI, XBOOLE_0;
theorems BINOP_1, FUNCT_1, LATTICES, MCART_1, RLSUB_1, RLVECT_1, TARSKI,
ZFMISC_1, RELAT_1, XBOOLE_0, XBOOLE_1, VECTSP_1, XCMPLX_0, ORDERS_1,
STRUCT_0, XTUPLE_0;
schemes BINOP_1, FUNCT_1, RELSET_1, ORDERS_1, CLASSES1, XFAMILY;
begin
reserve V for RealLinearSpace;
reserve W,W1,W2,W3 for Subspace of V;
reserve u,u1,u2,v,v1,v2 for VECTOR of V;
reserve a,a1,a2 for Real;
reserve X,Y,x,y,y1,y2 for set;
::
:: Definitions of sum and intersection of subspaces.
::
definition
let V;
let W1,W2;
func W1 + W2 -> strict Subspace of V means
:Def1:
the carrier of it = {v + u : v in W1 & u in W2};
existence
proof
reconsider V1 = the carrier of W1, V2 = the carrier of W2 as Subset of V
by RLSUB_1:def 2;
set VS = {v + u where u,v: v in W1 & u in W2};
VS c= the carrier of V
proof
let x be object;
assume x in VS;
then ex v2,v1 st x = v1+ v2 & v1 in W1 & v2 in W2;
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider VS as Subset of V;
A1: 0.V = 0.V + 0.V;
0.V in W1 & 0.V in W2 by RLSUB_1:17;
then
A2: 0.V in VS by A1;
A3: VS = {v + u where u,v is Element of V: v in V1 & u in V2}
proof
thus VS c= {v + u where u,v is Element of V: v in V1 & u in V2}
proof
let x be object;
assume x in VS;
then consider u,v such that
A4: x = v + u and
A5: v in W1 & u in W2;
v in V1 & u in V2 by A5,STRUCT_0:def 5;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
let x be object;
assume x in {v + u where u,v is Element of V: v in V1 & u in V2};
then consider u,v such that
A6: x = v + u and
A7: v in V1 & u in V2;
v in W1 & u in W2 by A7,STRUCT_0:def 5;
hence thesis by A6;
end;
V1 is linearly-closed & V2 is linearly-closed by RLSUB_1:34;
hence thesis by A2,A3,RLSUB_1:6,35;
end;
uniqueness by RLSUB_1:30;
end;
definition
let V;
let W1,W2;
func W1 /\ W2 -> strict Subspace of V means
:Def2:
the carrier of it = (the carrier of W1) /\ (the carrier of W2);
existence
proof
set VW2 = the carrier of W2;
set VW1 = the carrier of W1;
set VV = the carrier of V;
0.V in W2 by RLSUB_1:17;
then
A1: 0.V in VW2 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
VW1 c= VV & VW2 c= VV by RLSUB_1:def 2;
then VW1 /\ VW2 c= VV /\ VV by XBOOLE_1:27;
then reconsider
V1 = VW1, V2 = VW2, V3 = VW1 /\ VW2 as Subset of the carrier of
V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
V1 is linearly-closed & V2 is linearly-closed by RLSUB_1:34;
then
A2: V3 is linearly-closed by RLSUB_1:7;
0.V in W1 by RLSUB_1:17;
then 0.V in VW1 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
then VW1 /\ VW2 <> {} by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence thesis by A2,RLSUB_1:35;
end;
uniqueness by RLSUB_1:30;
end;
::
:: Definitional theorems of sum and intersection of subspaces.
::
theorem Th1:
for x being object holds
x in W1 + W2 iff ex v1,v2 st v1 in W1 & v2 in W2 & x = v1 + v2
proof let x be object;
thus x in W1 + W2 implies ex v1,v2 st v1 in W1 & v2 in W2 & x = v1 + v2
proof
assume x in W1 + W2;
then x in the carrier of W1 + W2 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
then x in {v + u : v in W1 & u in W2} by Def1;
then consider v2,v1 such that
A1: x = v1 + v2 & v1 in W1 & v2 in W2;
take v1,v2;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
given v1,v2 such that
A2: v1 in W1 & v2 in W2 & x = v1 + v2;
x in {v + u : v in W1 & u in W2} by A2;
then x in the carrier of W1 + W2 by Def1;
hence thesis by STRUCT_0:def 5;
end;
theorem Th2:
v in W1 or v in W2 implies v in W1 + W2
proof
assume
A1: v in W1 or v in W2;
now
per cases by A1;
suppose
A2: v in W1;
v = v + 0.V & 0.V in W2 by RLSUB_1:17;
hence thesis by A2,Th1;
end;
suppose
A3: v in W2;
v = 0.V + v & 0.V in W1 by RLSUB_1:17;
hence thesis by A3,Th1;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th3:
for x being object holds x in W1 /\ W2 iff x in W1 & x in W2
proof let x be object;
x in W1 /\ W2 iff x in the carrier of W1 /\ W2 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
then x in W1 /\ W2 iff x in (the carrier of W1) /\ (the carrier of W2) by
Def2;
then x in W1 /\ W2 iff x in the carrier of W1 & x in the carrier of W2 by
XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence thesis by STRUCT_0:def 5;
end;
Lm1: W1 + W2 = W2 + W1
proof
set A = {v + u : v in W1 & u in W2};
set B = {v + u : v in W2 & u in W1};
A1: B c= A
proof
let x be object;
assume x in B;
then ex u,v st x = v + u & v in W2 & u in W1;
hence thesis;
end;
A2: the carrier of W1 + W2 = A by Def1;
A c= B
proof
let x be object;
assume x in A;
then ex u,v st x = v + u & v in W1 & u in W2;
hence thesis;
end;
then A = B by A1;
hence thesis by A2,Def1;
end;
Lm2: the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of W1 + W2
proof
let x be object;
set A = {v + u : v in W1 & u in W2};
assume x in the carrier of W1;
then reconsider v = x as Element of W1;
reconsider v as VECTOR of V by RLSUB_1:10;
A1: v = v + 0.V;
v in W1 & 0.V in W2 by RLSUB_1:17,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then x in A by A1;
hence thesis by Def1;
end;
Lm3: for W2 being strict Subspace of V holds the carrier of W1 c= the carrier
of W2 implies W1 + W2 = W2
proof
let W2 be strict Subspace of V;
assume
A1: the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of W2;
A2: the carrier of W1 + W2 c= the carrier of W2
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of W1 + W2;
then x in {v + u : v in W1 & u in W2} by Def1;
then consider u,v such that
A3: x = v + u and
A4: v in W1 and
A5: u in W2;
W1 is Subspace of W2 by A1,RLSUB_1:28;
then v in W2 by A4,RLSUB_1:8;
then v + u in W2 by A5,RLSUB_1:20;
hence thesis by A3,STRUCT_0:def 5;
end;
W1 + W2 = W2 + W1 by Lm1;
then the carrier of W2 c= the carrier of W1+W2 by Lm2;
then the carrier of W1 + W2 = the carrier of W2 by A2;
hence thesis by RLSUB_1:30;
end;
theorem
for W being strict Subspace of V holds W + W = W by Lm3;
theorem
W1 + W2 = W2 + W1 by Lm1;
theorem Th6:
W1 + (W2 + W3) = (W1 + W2) + W3
proof
set A = {v + u : v in W1 & u in W2};
set B = {v + u : v in W2 & u in W3};
set C = {v + u : v in W1 + W2 & u in W3};
set D = {v + u : v in W1 & u in W2 + W3};
A1: the carrier of W1 + (W2 + W3) = D by Def1;
A2: C c= D
proof
let x be object;
assume x in C;
then consider u,v such that
A3: x = v + u and
A4: v in W1 + W2 and
A5: u in W3;
v in the carrier of W1 + W2 by A4,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then v in A by Def1;
then consider u2,u1 such that
A6: v = u1 + u2 and
A7: u1 in W1 and
A8: u2 in W2;
u2 + u in B by A5,A8;
then u2 + u in the carrier of W2 + W3 by Def1;
then
A9: u2 + u in W2 + W3 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
v + u =u1 + (u2 + u) by A6,RLVECT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A3,A7,A9;
end;
D c= C
proof
let x be object;
assume x in D;
then consider u,v such that
A10: x = v + u and
A11: v in W1 and
A12: u in W2 + W3;
u in the carrier of W2 + W3 by A12,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then u in B by Def1;
then consider u2,u1 such that
A13: u = u1 + u2 and
A14: u1 in W2 and
A15: u2 in W3;
v + u1 in A by A11,A14;
then v + u1 in the carrier of W1 + W2 by Def1;
then
A16: v + u1 in W1 + W2 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
v + u = (v + u1) + u2 by A13,RLVECT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A10,A15,A16;
end;
then D = C by A2;
hence thesis by A1,Def1;
end;
theorem Th7:
W1 is Subspace of W1 + W2 & W2 is Subspace of W1 + W2
proof
the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of W1 + W2 by Lm2;
hence W1 is Subspace of W1 + W2 by RLSUB_1:28;
the carrier of W2 c= the carrier of W2 + W1 by Lm2;
then the carrier of W2 c= the carrier of W1 + W2 by Lm1;
hence thesis by RLSUB_1:28;
end;
theorem Th8:
for W2 being strict Subspace of V holds W1 is Subspace of W2 iff W1 + W2 = W2
proof
let W2 be strict Subspace of V;
thus W1 is Subspace of W2 implies W1 + W2 = W2
proof
assume W1 is Subspace of W2;
then the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of W2 by RLSUB_1:def 2;
hence thesis by Lm3;
end;
thus thesis by Th7;
end;
theorem Th9:
for W being strict Subspace of V holds (0).V + W = W & W + (0).V = W
proof
let W be strict Subspace of V;
(0).V is Subspace of W by RLSUB_1:39;
then the carrier of (0).V c= the carrier of W by RLSUB_1:def 2;
hence (0).V + W = W by Lm3;
hence thesis by Lm1;
end;
theorem
(0).V + (Omega).V = the RLSStruct of V & (Omega). V + (0).V = the
RLSStruct of V by Th9;
theorem Th11:
(Omega).V + W = the RLSStruct of V & W + (Omega).V = the RLSStruct of V
proof
the carrier of W c= the carrier of V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
then W + (Omega).V = the RLSStruct of V by Lm3;
hence thesis by Lm1;
end;
theorem
for V being strict RealLinearSpace holds (Omega).V + (Omega).V = V by Th11;
theorem
for W being strict Subspace of V holds W /\ W = W
proof
let W be strict Subspace of V;
the carrier of W = (the carrier of W) /\ (the carrier of W);
hence thesis by Def2;
end;
theorem Th14:
W1 /\ W2 = W2 /\ W1
proof
the carrier of W1 /\ W2 = (the carrier of W2) /\ (the carrier of W1) by Def2;
hence thesis by Def2;
end;
theorem Th15:
W1 /\ (W2 /\ W3) = (W1 /\ W2) /\ W3
proof
set V1 = the carrier of W1;
set V2 = the carrier of W2;
set V3 = the carrier of W3;
the carrier of W1 /\ (W2 /\ W3) = V1 /\ (the carrier of W2 /\ W3) by Def2
.= V1 /\ (V2 /\ V3) by Def2
.= (V1 /\ V2) /\ V3 by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (the carrier of W1 /\ W2) /\ V3 by Def2;
hence thesis by Def2;
end;
Lm4: the carrier of W1 /\ W2 c= the carrier of W1
proof
the carrier of W1 /\ W2 = (the carrier of W1) /\ (the carrier of W2) by Def2;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:17;
end;
theorem Th16:
W1 /\ W2 is Subspace of W1 & W1 /\ W2 is Subspace of W2
proof
the carrier of W1 /\ W2 c= the carrier of W1 by Lm4;
hence W1 /\ W2 is Subspace of W1 by RLSUB_1:28;
the carrier of W2 /\ W1 c= the carrier of W2 by Lm4;
then the carrier of W1 /\ W2 c= the carrier of W2 by Th14;
hence thesis by RLSUB_1:28;
end;
theorem Th17:
for W1 being strict Subspace of V holds W1 is Subspace of W2 iff
W1 /\ W2 = W1
proof
let W1 be strict Subspace of V;
thus W1 is Subspace of W2 implies W1 /\ W2 = W1
proof
assume W1 is Subspace of W2;
then
A1: the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of W2 by RLSUB_1:def 2;
the carrier of W1 /\ W2 = (the carrier of W1) /\ (the carrier of W2 )
by Def2;
hence thesis by A1,RLSUB_1:30,XBOOLE_1:28;
end;
thus thesis by Th16;
end;
theorem Th18:
(0).V /\ W = (0).V & W /\ (0).V = (0).V
proof
0.V in W by RLSUB_1:17;
then 0.V in the carrier of W by STRUCT_0:def 5;
then {0.V} c= the carrier of W by ZFMISC_1:31;
then
A1: {0.V} /\ (the carrier of W) = {0.V} by XBOOLE_1:28;
the carrier of (0).V /\ W = (the carrier of (0).V) /\ (the carrier of W)
by Def2
.= {0.V} /\ (the carrier of W) by RLSUB_1:def 3;
hence (0).V /\ W = (0).V by A1,RLSUB_1:def 3;
hence thesis by Th14;
end;
theorem
(0).V /\ (Omega).V = (0).V & (Omega).V /\ (0).V = (0).V by Th18;
theorem Th20:
for W being strict Subspace of V holds (Omega).V /\ W = W & W /\
(Omega).V = W
proof
let W be strict Subspace of V;
the carrier of (Omega). V /\ W = (the carrier of V) /\ (the carrier of W
) & the carrier of W c= the carrier of V by Def2,RLSUB_1:def 2;
hence (Omega).V /\ W = W by RLSUB_1:30,XBOOLE_1:28;
hence thesis by Th14;
end;
theorem
for V being strict RealLinearSpace holds (Omega).V /\ (Omega).V = V by Th20;
Lm5: the carrier of W1 /\ W2 c= the carrier of W1 + W2
proof
the carrier of W1 /\ W2 c= the carrier of W1 & the carrier of W1 c= the
carrier of W1 + W2 by Lm2,Lm4;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
W1 /\ W2 is Subspace of W1 + W2 by Lm5,RLSUB_1:28;
Lm6: the carrier of (W1 /\ W2) + W2 = the carrier of W2
proof
thus the carrier of (W1 /\ W2) + W2 c= the carrier of W2
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of (W1 /\ W2) + W2;
then x in {u + v where v,u : u in W1 /\ W2 & v in W2} by Def1;
then consider v,u such that
A1: x = u + v and
A2: u in W1 /\ W2 and
A3: v in W2;
u in W2 by A2,Th3;
then u + v in W2 by A3,RLSUB_1:20;
hence thesis by A1,STRUCT_0:def 5;
end;
let x be object;
the carrier of W2 c= the carrier of W2 + (W1 /\ W2) by Lm2;
then
A4: the carrier of W2 c= the carrier of (W1 /\ W2) + W2 by Lm1;
assume x in the carrier of W2;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
theorem
for W2 being strict Subspace of V holds (W1 /\ W2) + W2 = W2 by Lm6,
RLSUB_1:30;
Lm7: the carrier of W1 /\ (W1 + W2) = the carrier of W1
proof
thus the carrier of W1 /\ (W1 + W2) c= the carrier of W1
proof
let x be object;
assume
A1: x in the carrier of W1 /\ (W1 + W2);
the carrier of W1 /\ (W1 + W2) = (the carrier of W1) /\ (the carrier
of W1 + W2) by Def2;
hence thesis by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in the carrier of W1;
the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
then reconsider x1 = x as Element of V by A2;
A3: x1 + 0.V = x1 & 0.V in W2 by RLSUB_1:17;
x in W1 by A2,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then x in {u + v where v,u: u in W1 & v in W2} by A3;
then x in the carrier of W1 + W2 by Def1;
then x in (the carrier of W1) /\ (the carrier of W1 + W2) by A2,
XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence thesis by Def2;
end;
theorem
for W1 being strict Subspace of V holds W1 /\ (W1 + W2) = W1 by Lm7,
RLSUB_1:30;
Lm8: the carrier of (W1 /\ W2) + (W2 /\ W3) c= the carrier of W2 /\ (W1 + W3)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of (W1 /\ W2) + (W2 /\ W3);
then x in {u + v where v,u: u in W1 /\ W2 & v in W2 /\ W3} by Def1;
then consider v,u such that
A1: x = u + v and
A2: u in W1 /\ W2 & v in W2 /\ W3;
u in W2 & v in W2 by A2,Th3;
then
A3: x in W2 by A1,RLSUB_1:20;
u in W1 & v in W3 by A2,Th3;
then x in W1 + W3 by A1,Th1;
then x in W2 /\ (W1 + W3) by A3,Th3;
hence thesis by STRUCT_0:def 5;
end;
theorem
(W1 /\ W2) + (W2 /\ W3) is Subspace of W2 /\ (W1 + W3) by Lm8,RLSUB_1:28;
Lm9: W1 is Subspace of W2 implies the carrier of W2 /\ (W1 + W3) = the carrier
of (W1 /\ W2) + (W2 /\ W3)
proof
assume
A1: W1 is Subspace of W2;
thus the carrier of W2 /\ (W1 + W3) c= the carrier of (W1 /\ W2) + (W2 /\ W3
)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of W2 /\ (W1 + W3);
then
A2: x in (the carrier of W2) /\ (the carrier of W1 + W3) by Def2;
then x in the carrier of W1 + W3 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then x in {u + v where v,u: u in W1 & v in W3} by Def1;
then consider v1,u1 such that
A3: x = u1 + v1 and
A4: u1 in W1 and
A5: v1 in W3;
A6: u1 in W2 by A1,A4,RLSUB_1:8;
x in the carrier of W2 by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then u1 + v1 in W2 by A3,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then (v1 + u1) - u1 in W2 by A6,RLSUB_1:23;
then v1 + (u1 - u1) in W2 by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then v1 + 0.V in W2 by RLVECT_1:15;
then v1 in W2;
then
A7: v1 in W2 /\ W3 by A5,Th3;
u1 in W1 /\ W2 by A4,A6,Th3;
then x in (W1 /\ W2) + (W2 /\ W3) by A3,A7,Th1;
hence thesis by STRUCT_0:def 5;
end;
thus thesis by Lm8;
end;
theorem
W1 is Subspace of W2 implies W2 /\ (W1 + W3) = (W1 /\ W2) + (W2 /\ W3)
by Lm9,RLSUB_1:30;
Lm10: the carrier of W2 + (W1 /\ W3) c= the carrier of (W1 + W2) /\ (W2 + W3)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of W2 + (W1 /\ W3);
then x in {u + v where v,u: u in W2 & v in W1 /\ W3} by Def1;
then consider v,u such that
A1: x = u + v & u in W2 and
A2: v in W1 /\ W3;
v in W3 by A2,Th3;
then x in {u1 + u2 where u2,u1: u1 in W2 & u2 in W3} by A1;
then
A3: x in the carrier of W2 + W3 by Def1;
v in W1 by A2,Th3;
then x in {v1 + v2 where v2,v1: v1 in W1 & v2 in W2} by A1;
then x in the carrier of W1 + W2 by Def1;
then x in (the carrier of W1 + W2) /\ (the carrier of W2 + W3) by A3,
XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence thesis by Def2;
end;
theorem
W2 + (W1 /\ W3) is Subspace of (W1 + W2) /\ (W2 + W3) by Lm10,RLSUB_1:28;
Lm11: W1 is Subspace of W2 implies the carrier of W2 + (W1 /\ W3) = the
carrier of (W1 + W2) /\ (W2 + W3)
proof
reconsider V2 = the carrier of W2 as Subset of V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
A1: V2 is linearly-closed by RLSUB_1:34;
assume W1 is Subspace of W2;
then
A2: the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of W2 by RLSUB_1:def 2;
thus the carrier of W2 + (W1 /\ W3) c= the carrier of (W1 + W2) /\ (W2 + W3)
by Lm10;
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of (W1 + W2) /\ (W2 + W3);
then x in (the carrier of W1 + W2) /\ (the carrier of W2 + W3) by Def2;
then x in the carrier of W1 + W2 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then x in {u1 + u2 where u2,u1: u1 in W1 & u2 in W2} by Def1;
then consider u2,u1 such that
A3: x = u1 + u2 and
A4: u1 in W1 & u2 in W2;
u1 in the carrier of W1 & u2 in the carrier of W2 by A4,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then u1 + u2 in V2 by A2,A1;
then
A5: u1 + u2 in W2 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
0.V in W1 /\ W3 & (u1 + u2) + 0.V = u1 + u2 by RLSUB_1:17;
then x in {u + v where v,u: u in W2 & v in W1 /\ W3} by A3,A5;
hence thesis by Def1;
end;
theorem
W1 is Subspace of W2 implies W2 + (W1 /\ W3) = (W1 + W2) /\ (W2 + W3)
by Lm11,RLSUB_1:30;
theorem Th29:
W1 is strict Subspace of W3 implies W1 + (W2 /\ W3) = (W1 + W2) /\ W3
proof
assume
A1: W1 is strict Subspace of W3;
thus (W1 + W2) /\ W3 = W3 /\ (W1 + W2) by Th14
.= (W1 /\ W3) + (W3 /\ W2) by A1,Lm9,RLSUB_1:30
.= W1 + (W3 /\ W2) by A1,Th17
.= W1 + (W2 /\ W3) by Th14;
end;
theorem
for W1,W2 being strict Subspace of V holds W1 + W2 = W2 iff W1 /\ W2 = W1
proof
let W1,W2 be strict Subspace of V;
W1 + W2 = W2 iff W1 is Subspace of W2 by Th8;
hence thesis by Th17;
end;
theorem
for W2,W3 being strict Subspace of V holds W1 is Subspace of W2
implies W1 + W3 is Subspace of W2 + W3
proof
let W2,W3 be strict Subspace of V;
assume
A1: W1 is Subspace of W2;
(W1 + W3) + (W2 + W3) = (W1 + W3) + (W3 + W2) by Lm1
.= ((W1 + W3) + W3) + W2 by Th6
.= (W1 + (W3 + W3)) + W2 by Th6
.= (W1 + W3) + W2 by Lm3
.= W1 + (W3 + W2) by Th6
.= W1 + (W2 + W3) by Lm1
.= (W1 + W2) + W3 by Th6
.= W2 + W3 by A1,Th8;
hence thesis by Th8;
end;
theorem
(ex W st the carrier of W = (the carrier of W1) \/ (the carrier of W2)
) iff W1 is Subspace of W2 or W2 is Subspace of W1
proof
set VW1 = the carrier of W1;
set VW2 = the carrier of W2;
thus (ex W st the carrier of W = (the carrier of W1) \/ (the carrier of W2))
implies W1 is Subspace of W2 or W2 is Subspace of W1
proof
given W such that
A1: the carrier of W = (the carrier of W1) \/ (the carrier of W2);
set VW = the carrier of W;
assume that
A2: not W1 is Subspace of W2 and
A3: not W2 is Subspace of W1;
not VW2 c= VW1 by A3,RLSUB_1:28;
then consider y being object such that
A4: y in VW2 and
A5: not y in VW1;
reconsider y as Element of VW2 by A4;
reconsider y as VECTOR of V by RLSUB_1:10;
reconsider A1 = VW as Subset of V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
A6: A1 is linearly-closed by RLSUB_1:34;
not VW1 c= VW2 by A2,RLSUB_1:28;
then consider x being object such that
A7: x in VW1 and
A8: not x in VW2;
reconsider x as Element of VW1 by A7;
reconsider x as VECTOR of V by RLSUB_1:10;
A9: now
reconsider A2 = VW2 as Subset of V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
A10: A2 is linearly-closed by RLSUB_1:34;
assume x + y in VW2;
then (x + y) - y in VW2 by A10,RLSUB_1:3;
then x + (y - y) in VW2 by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then x + 0.V in VW2 by RLVECT_1:15;
hence contradiction by A8;
end;
A11: now
reconsider A2 = VW1 as Subset of V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
A12: A2 is linearly-closed by RLSUB_1:34;
assume x + y in VW1;
then (y + x) - x in VW1 by A12,RLSUB_1:3;
then y + (x - x) in VW1 by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then y + 0.V in VW1 by RLVECT_1:15;
hence contradiction by A5;
end;
x in VW & y in VW by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then x + y in VW by A6;
hence thesis by A1,A11,A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
A13: now
assume W1 is Subspace of W2;
then VW1 c= VW2 by RLSUB_1:def 2;
then VW1 \/ VW2 = VW2 by XBOOLE_1:12;
hence thesis;
end;
A14: now
assume W2 is Subspace of W1;
then VW2 c= VW1 by RLSUB_1:def 2;
then VW1 \/ VW2 = VW1 by XBOOLE_1:12;
hence thesis;
end;
assume W1 is Subspace of W2 or W2 is Subspace of W1;
hence thesis by A13,A14;
end;
::
:: Introduction of a set of subspaces of real linear space.
::
definition
let V;
func Subspaces(V) -> set means
:Def3:
for x being object holds x in it iff x is strict Subspace of V;
existence
proof
defpred Q[object,object] means
ex W being strict Subspace of V st $2 = W & $1 = the carrier of W;
defpred P[set] means (ex W being strict Subspace of V st $1 = the carrier
of W);
consider B being set such that
A1: for x holds x in B iff x in bool(the carrier of V) & P[x] from
XFAMILY:sch 1;
A2: for x,y1,y2 being object st Q[x,y1] & Q[x,y2] holds y1 = y2 by RLSUB_1:30;
consider f being Function such that
A3: for x,y being object holds [x,y] in f iff x in B & Q[x,y]
from FUNCT_1:sch 1(A2);
for x being object holds x in B iff ex y being object st [x,y] in f
proof
let x be object;
thus x in B implies ex y being object st [x,y] in f
proof
assume
A4: x in B;
then consider W being strict Subspace of V such that
A5: x = the carrier of W by A1;
take W;
thus thesis by A3,A4,A5;
end;
thus thesis by A3;
end;
then
A6: B = dom f by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
for y being object holds y in rng f iff y is strict Subspace of V
proof
let y be object;
thus y in rng f implies y is strict Subspace of V
proof
assume y in rng f;
then consider x being object such that
A7: x in dom f & y = f.x by FUNCT_1:def 3;
[x,y] in f by A7,FUNCT_1:def 2;
then ex W being strict Subspace of V st y = W & x = the carrier of W
by A3;
hence thesis;
end;
assume y is strict Subspace of V;
then reconsider W = y as strict Subspace of V;
A8: y is set by TARSKI:1;
reconsider x = the carrier of W as set;
the carrier of W c= the carrier of V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
then
A9: x in dom f by A1,A6;
then [x,y] in f by A3,A6;
then y = f.x by A9,FUNCT_1:def 2,A8;
hence thesis by A9,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let D1,D2 be set;
assume
A10: for x being object holds x in D1 iff x is strict Subspace of V;
assume
A11: for x being object holds x in D2 iff x is strict Subspace of V;
now
let x be object;
thus x in D1 implies x in D2
proof
assume x in D1;
then x is strict Subspace of V by A10;
hence thesis by A11;
end;
assume x in D2;
then x is strict Subspace of V by A11;
hence x in D1 by A10;
end;
hence thesis by TARSKI:2;
end;
end;
registration
let V;
cluster Subspaces(V) -> non empty;
coherence
proof
set x = the strict Subspace of V;
x in Subspaces(V) by Def3;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem
for V being strict RealLinearSpace holds V in Subspaces(V)
proof
let V be strict RealLinearSpace;
(Omega).V in Subspaces(V) by Def3;
hence thesis;
end;
::
:: Introduction of the direct sum of subspaces and
:: linear complement of subspace.
::
definition
let V;
let W1,W2;
pred V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 means
the RLSStruct of V = W1 + W2 & W1 /\ W2 = (0).V;
end;
Lm12: for V being RealLinearSpace, W being strict Subspace of V holds (for v
being VECTOR of V holds v in W) implies W = the RLSStruct of V
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W be strict Subspace of V;
assume for v being VECTOR of V holds v in W;
then for v be VECTOR of V holds (v in W iff v in (Omega).V) by RLVECT_1:1;
hence thesis by RLSUB_1:31;
end;
Lm13: for V being RealLinearSpace, W1,W2 being Subspace of V holds W1 + W2 =
the RLSStruct of V iff for v being VECTOR of V ex v1,v2 being VECTOR of V st v1
in W1 & v2 in W2 & v = v1 + v2
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W1,W2 be Subspace of V;
thus W1 + W2 = the RLSStruct of V implies for v being VECTOR of V ex v1,v2
being VECTOR of V st v1 in W1 & v2 in W2 & v = v1 + v2
by RLVECT_1:1,Th1;
assume
A1: for v being VECTOR of V ex v1,v2 being VECTOR of V st v1 in W1 & v2
in W2 & v = v1 + v2;
now
let u be VECTOR of V;
ex v1,v2 being VECTOR of V st v1 in W1 & v2 in W2 & u = v1 + v2 by A1;
hence u in W1 + W2 by Th1;
end;
hence thesis by Lm12;
end;
Lm14: for V being add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable non empty
addLoopStr, v,v1,v2 being Element of V holds v = v1 + v2 iff v1 = v - v2
proof
let V be add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable non empty
addLoopStr, v,v1,v2 be Element of V;
thus v = v1 + v2 implies v1 = v - v2
proof
assume v = v1 + v2;
hence v - v2 = v1 + (v2 - v2) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= v1 + 0.V by VECTSP_1:19
.= v1;
end;
thus v1 = v - v2 implies v = v1 + v2
proof
assume v1 = v - v2;
hence v1 + v2 = v + (-v2 + v2) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= v + 0.V by RLVECT_1:5
.= v;
end;
end;
Lm15: for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V ex C being strict
Subspace of V st V is_the_direct_sum_of C,W
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let W be Subspace of V;
defpred P[set] means ex W1 being strict Subspace of V st $1 = W1 & W /\ W1 =
(0).V;
consider X such that
A1: x in X iff x in Subspaces(V) & P[x] from XFAMILY:sch 1;
W /\ (0).V = (0).V & (0).V in Subspaces(V) by Def3,Th18;
then reconsider X as non empty set by A1;
defpred P[set,set] means ex W1,W2 being strict Subspace of V st $1 = W1 & $2
= W2 & W1 is Subspace of W2;
consider R being Relation of X such that
A2: for x,y being Element of X holds [x,y] in R iff P[x,y] from RELSET_1
:sch 2;
defpred P[set,set] means [$1,$2] in R;
now
let x,y,z be Element of X;
assume that
A3: [x,y] in R and
A4: [y,z] in R;
consider W1,W2 being strict Subspace of V such that
A5: x = W1 and
A6: y = W2 & W1 is Subspace of W2 by A2,A3;
consider W3,W4 being strict Subspace of V such that
A7: y = W3 and
A8: z = W4 and
A9: W3 is Subspace of W4 by A2,A4;
W1 is strict Subspace of W4 by A6,A7,A9,RLSUB_1:27;
hence [x,z] in R by A2,A5,A8;
end;
then
A10: for x,y,z being Element of X st P[x,y] & P[y,z] holds P[x,z];
A11: now
let x be Element of X;
x in Subspaces(V) by A1;
hence x is strict Subspace of V by Def3;
end;
now
let x be Element of X;
reconsider W = x as strict Subspace of V by A11;
W is Subspace of W by RLSUB_1:25;
hence [x,x] in R by A2;
end;
then
A12: for x being Element of X holds P[x,x];
for Y st Y c= X & (for x,y being Element of X st x in Y & y in Y holds
[x,y] in R or [y,x] in R) ex y being Element of X st for x being Element of X
st x in Y holds [x,y] in R
proof
let Y;
assume that
A13: Y c= X and
A14: for x,y being Element of X st x in Y & y in Y holds [x,y] in R or
[y,x] in R;
now
per cases;
suppose
A15: Y = {};
set y = the Element of X;
take y9 = y;
let x be Element of X;
assume x in Y;
hence [x,y9] in R by A15;
end;
suppose
A16: Y <> {};
defpred P[object,object] means
ex W1 being strict Subspace of V st $1 = W1 &
$2 = the carrier of W1;
A17: for x being object st x in Y ex y being object st P[x,y]
proof
let x be object;
assume x in Y;
then consider W1 being strict Subspace of V such that
A18: x = W1 and
W /\ W1 = (0).V by A1,A13;
reconsider y = the carrier of W1 as set;
take y;
take W1;
thus thesis by A18;
end;
consider f being Function such that
A19: dom f = Y and
A20: for x being object st x in Y holds P[x,f.x] from CLASSES1:sch 1(A17);
set Z = union(rng f);
now
let x be object;
assume x in Z;
then consider Y9 being set such that
A21: x in Y9 and
A22: Y9 in rng f by TARSKI:def 4;
consider y being object such that
A23: y in dom f and
A24: f.y = Y9 by A22,FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider W1 being strict Subspace of V such that
y = W1 and
A25: f.y = the carrier of W1 by A19,A20,A23;
the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of V by RLSUB_1:def 2;
hence x in the carrier of V by A21,A24,A25;
end;
then reconsider Z as Subset of V by TARSKI:def 3;
A26: Z is linearly-closed
proof
thus for v1,v2 being VECTOR of V st v1 in Z & v2 in Z holds v1 + v2
in Z
proof
let v1,v2 be VECTOR of V;
assume that
A27: v1 in Z and
A28: v2 in Z;
consider Y1 being set such that
A29: v1 in Y1 and
A30: Y1 in rng f by A27,TARSKI:def 4;
consider y1 being object such that
A31: y1 in dom f and
A32: f.y1 = Y1 by A30,FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider Y2 being set such that
A33: v2 in Y2 and
A34: Y2 in rng f by A28,TARSKI:def 4;
consider y2 being object such that
A35: y2 in dom f and
A36: f.y2 = Y2 by A34,FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider W1 being strict Subspace of V such that
A37: y1 = W1 and
A38: f.y1 = the carrier of W1 by A19,A20,A31;
consider W2 being strict Subspace of V such that
A39: y2 = W2 and
A40: f.y2 = the carrier of W2 by A19,A20,A35;
reconsider y1,y2 as Element of X by A13,A19,A31,A35;
now
per cases by A14,A19,A31,A35;
suppose
[y1,y2] in R;
then ex W3,W4 being strict Subspace of V st y1 = W3 & y2 = W4
& W3 is Subspace of W4 by A2;
then the carrier of W1 c= the carrier of W2 by A37,A39,
RLSUB_1:def 2;
then
A41: v1 in W2 by A29,A32,A38,STRUCT_0:def 5;
v2 in W2 by A33,A36,A40,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then v1 + v2 in W2 by A41,RLSUB_1:20;
then
A42: v1 + v2 in the carrier of W2 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
f.y2 in rng f by A35,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A40,A42,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
suppose
[y2,y1] in R;
then ex W3,W4 being strict Subspace of V st y2 = W3 & y1 = W4
& W3 is Subspace of W4 by A2;
then the carrier of W2 c= the carrier of W1 by A37,A39,
RLSUB_1:def 2;
then
A43: v2 in W1 by A33,A36,A40,STRUCT_0:def 5;
v1 in W1 by A29,A32,A38,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then v1 + v2 in W1 by A43,RLSUB_1:20;
then
A44: v1 + v2 in the carrier of W1 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
f.y1 in rng f by A31,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A38,A44,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
let a;
let v1 be VECTOR of V;
assume v1 in Z;
then consider Y1 being set such that
A45: v1 in Y1 and
A46: Y1 in rng f by TARSKI:def 4;
consider y1 being object such that
A47: y1 in dom f and
A48: f.y1 = Y1 by A46,FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider W1 being strict Subspace of V such that
y1 = W1 and
A49: f.y1 = the carrier of W1 by A19,A20,A47;
v1 in W1 by A45,A48,A49,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then a * v1 in W1 by RLSUB_1:21;
then
A50: a * v1 in the carrier of W1 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
f.y1 in rng f by A47,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A49,A50,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
set z = the Element of rng f;
A51: rng f <> {} by A16,A19,RELAT_1:42;
then consider z1 being object such that
A52: z1 in dom f and
A53: f.z1 = z by FUNCT_1:def 3;
ex W3 being strict Subspace of V st z1 = W3 & f.z1 = the carrier
of W3 by A19,A20,A52;
then Z <> {} by A51,A53,ORDERS_1:6;
then consider E being strict Subspace of V such that
A54: Z = the carrier of E by A26,RLSUB_1:35;
now
let u be VECTOR of V;
thus u in W /\ E implies u in (0).V
proof
assume
A55: u in W /\ E;
then
A56: u in W by Th3;
u in E by A55,Th3;
then u in Z by A54,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then consider Y1 being set such that
A57: u in Y1 and
A58: Y1 in rng f by TARSKI:def 4;
consider y1 being object such that
A59: y1 in dom f and
A60: f.y1 = Y1 by A58,FUNCT_1:def 3;
A61: ex W2 being strict Subspace of V st y1 = W2 & W /\ W2 = (0).
V by A1,A13,A19,A59;
consider W1 being strict Subspace of V such that
A62: y1 = W1 and
A63: f.y1 = the carrier of W1 by A19,A20,A59;
u in W1 by A57,A60,A63,STRUCT_0:def 5;
hence thesis by A62,A56,A61,Th3;
end;
assume u in (0).V;
then u in the carrier of (0).V by STRUCT_0:def 5;
then u in {0.V} by RLSUB_1:def 3;
then u = 0.V by TARSKI:def 1;
hence u in W /\ E by RLSUB_1:17;
end;
then
A64: W /\ E = (0).V by RLSUB_1:31;
E in Subspaces(V) by Def3;
then reconsider y9 = E as Element of X by A1,A64;
take y = y9;
let x be Element of X;
assume
A65: x in Y;
then consider W1 being strict Subspace of V such that
A66: x = W1 and
A67: f.x = the carrier of W1 by A20;
now
let u be VECTOR of V;
assume u in W1;
then
A68: u in the carrier of W1 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
the carrier of W1 in rng f by A19,A65,A67,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then u in Z by A68,TARSKI:def 4;
hence u in E by A54,STRUCT_0:def 5;
end;
then W1 is strict Subspace of E by RLSUB_1:29;
hence [x,y] in R by A2,A66;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
then
A69: for Y st Y c= X & (for x,y being Element of X st x in Y & y in Y
holds P[x,y] or P[y,x]) holds ex y being Element of X st for x being Element
of X st x in Y holds P[x,y];
now
let x,y be Element of X;
assume [x,y] in R & [y,x] in R;
then ( ex W1,W2 being strict Subspace of V st x = W1 & y = W2 & W1 is
Subspace of W2 )& ex W3,W4 being strict Subspace of V st y = W3 & x = W4 & W3
is Subspace of W4 by A2;
hence x = y by RLSUB_1:26;
end;
then
A70: for x,y being Element of X st P[x,y] & P[y,x] holds x=y;
consider x being Element of X such that
A71: for y being Element of X st x <> y holds not P[x,y] from ORDERS_1:
sch 1(A12,A70,A10,A69);
consider L being strict Subspace of V such that
A72: x = L and
A73: W /\ L = (0).V by A1;
take L;
thus the RLSStruct of V = L + W
proof
assume not thesis;
then consider v being VECTOR of V such that
A74: for v1,v2 being VECTOR of V holds not v1 in L or not v2 in W or
v <> v1 + v2 by Lm13;
v = 0.V + v & 0.V in W by RLSUB_1:17;
then
A75: not v in L by A74;
set A = the set of all a * v ;
A76: 1 * v in A;
now
let x be object;
assume x in A;
then ex a st x = a * v;
hence x in the carrier of V;
end;
then reconsider A as Subset of V by TARSKI:def 3;
A is linearly-closed
proof
thus for v1,v2 being VECTOR of V st v1 in A & v2 in A holds v1 + v2 in A
proof
let v1,v2 be VECTOR of V;
assume v1 in A;
then consider a1 such that
A77: v1 = a1 * v;
assume v2 in A;
then consider a2 such that
A78: v2 = a2 * v;
v1 + v2 = (a1 + a2) * v by A77,A78,RLVECT_1:def 6;
hence thesis;
end;
let a;
let v1 be VECTOR of V;
assume v1 in A;
then consider a1 such that
A79: v1 = a1 * v;
a * v1 = (a * a1) * v by A79,RLVECT_1:def 7;
hence thesis;
end;
then consider Z being strict Subspace of V such that
A80: the carrier of Z = A by A76,RLSUB_1:35;
A81: not v in L + W by A74,Th1;
now
let u be VECTOR of V;
thus u in Z /\ (W + L) implies u in (0).V
proof
assume
A82: u in Z /\ (W + L);
then u in Z by Th3;
then u in A by A80,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then consider a such that
A83: u = a * v;
now
u in W + L by A82,Th3;
then a" * (a * v) in W + L by A83,RLSUB_1:21;
then
A84: (a" * a) * v in W + L by RLVECT_1:def 7;
assume a <> 0;
then 1 * v in W + L by A84,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
then 1 * v in L + W by Lm1;
hence contradiction by A81,RLVECT_1:def 8;
end;
then u = 0.V by A83,RLVECT_1:10;
hence thesis by RLSUB_1:17;
end;
assume u in (0).V;
then u in the carrier of (0).V by STRUCT_0:def 5;
then u in {0.V} by RLSUB_1:def 3;
then u = 0.V by TARSKI:def 1;
hence u in Z /\ (W + L) by RLSUB_1:17;
end;
then
A85: Z /\ (W + L) = (0).V by RLSUB_1:31;
now
let u be VECTOR of V;
thus u in (Z + L) /\ W implies u in (0).V
proof
assume
A86: u in (Z + L) /\ W;
then u in Z + L by Th3;
then consider v1,v2 being VECTOR of V such that
A87: v1 in Z and
A88: v2 in L and
A89: u = v1 + v2 by Th1;
A90: u in W by A86,Th3;
then
A91: u in W + L by Th2;
v1 = u - v2 & v2 in W + L by A88,A89,Lm14,Th2;
then v1 in W + L by A91,RLSUB_1:23;
then v1 in Z /\ (W + L) by A87,Th3;
then v1 in the carrier of (0).V by A85,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then v1 in {0.V} by RLSUB_1:def 3;
then v1 = 0.V by TARSKI:def 1;
then v2 = u by A89;
hence thesis by A73,A88,A90,Th3;
end;
assume u in (0).V;
then u in the carrier of (0).V by STRUCT_0:def 5;
then u in {0.V} by RLSUB_1:def 3;
then u = 0.V by TARSKI:def 1;
hence u in (Z + L) /\ W by RLSUB_1:17;
end;
then (Z + L) /\ W = (0).V by RLSUB_1:31;
then
A92: W /\ (Z + L) = (0).V by Th14;
(Z + L) in Subspaces(V) by Def3;
then reconsider x1 = Z + L as Element of X by A1,A92;
L is Subspace of Z + L by Th7;
then
A93: [x,x1] in R by A2,A72;
v in A by A76,RLVECT_1:def 8;
then v in Z by A80,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then Z + L <> L by A75,Th2;
hence contradiction by A71,A72,A93;
end;
thus thesis by A73,Th14;
end;
definition
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let W be Subspace of V;
mode Linear_Compl of W -> Subspace of V means
:Def5:
V is_the_direct_sum_of it,W;
existence
proof
ex C being strict Subspace of V st V is_the_direct_sum_of C,W by Lm15;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
registration
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let W be Subspace of V;
cluster strict for Linear_Compl of W;
existence
proof
consider C being strict Subspace of V such that
A1: V is_the_direct_sum_of C,W by Lm15;
C is Linear_Compl of W by A1,Def5;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
Lm16: V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 implies V is_the_direct_sum_of W2,W1
by Th14,Lm1;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W1,W2 being Subspace of V holds V
is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 implies W2 is Linear_Compl of W1
by Lm16,Def5;
theorem Th35:
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W holds V is_the_direct_sum_of L,W & V is_the_direct_sum_of W,L
by Def5,Lm16;
::
:: Theorems concerning the direct sum of a subspaces,
:: linear complement of a subspace and coset of a subspace.
::
theorem Th36:
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W holds W + L = the RLSStruct of V & L + W = the RLSStruct of V
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W be Subspace of V, L be Linear_Compl of W;
V is_the_direct_sum_of W,L by Th35;
hence W + L = the RLSStruct of V;
hence thesis by Lm1;
end;
theorem Th37:
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W holds W /\ L = (0).V & L /\ W = (0).V
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W be Subspace of V, L be Linear_Compl of W;
V is_the_direct_sum_of W,L by Th35;
hence W /\ L = (0).V;
hence thesis by Th14;
end;
theorem
V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 implies V is_the_direct_sum_of W2,W1 by Lm16;
theorem Th39:
for V being RealLinearSpace holds V is_the_direct_sum_of (0).V,
(Omega).V & V is_the_direct_sum_of (Omega).V,(0).V
by Th9,Th18;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W holds W is Linear_Compl of L
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W be Subspace of V, L be Linear_Compl of W;
V is_the_direct_sum_of L,W by Def5;
then V is_the_direct_sum_of W,L by Lm16;
hence thesis by Def5;
end;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace holds (0).V is Linear_Compl of (Omega).V &
(Omega).V is Linear_Compl of (0).V
by Th39,Def5;
reserve C for Coset of W;
reserve C1 for Coset of W1;
reserve C2 for Coset of W2;
theorem Th42:
C1 meets C2 implies C1 /\ C2 is Coset of W1 /\ W2
proof
set v = the Element of C1 /\ C2;
set C = C1 /\ C2;
assume
A1: C1 /\ C2 <> {};
then reconsider v as Element of V by TARSKI:def 3;
v in C2 by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A2: C2 = v + W2 by RLSUB_1:78;
v in C1 by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A3: C1 = v + W1 by RLSUB_1:78;
C is Coset of W1 /\ W2
proof
take v;
thus C c= v + W1 /\ W2
proof
let x be object;
assume
A4: x in C;
then x in C1 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider u1 such that
A5: u1 in W1 and
A6: x = v + u1 by A3,RLSUB_1:63;
x in C2 by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider u2 such that
A7: u2 in W2 and
A8: x = v + u2 by A2,RLSUB_1:63;
u1 = u2 by A6,A8,RLVECT_1:8;
then u1 in W1 /\ W2 by A5,A7,Th3;
hence thesis by A6;
end;
let x be object;
assume x in v + (W1 /\ W2);
then consider u such that
A9: u in W1 /\ W2 and
A10: x = v + u by RLSUB_1:63;
u in W2 by A9,Th3;
then
A11: x in {v + u2 : u2 in W2} by A10;
u in W1 by A9,Th3;
then x in {v + u1 : u1 in W1} by A10;
hence thesis by A3,A2,A11,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
Lm17: ex C st v in C
proof
reconsider C = v + W as Coset of W by RLSUB_1:def 6;
take C;
thus thesis by RLSUB_1:43;
end;
theorem Th43:
for V being RealLinearSpace, W1,W2 being Subspace of V holds V
is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 iff for C1 being Coset of W1, C2 being Coset of W2
ex v being VECTOR of V st C1 /\ C2 = {v}
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W1,W2 be Subspace of V;
set VW1 = the carrier of W1;
set VW2 = the carrier of W2;
0.V in W2 by RLSUB_1:17;
then
A1: 0.V in VW2 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
thus V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 implies for C1 being Coset of W1, C2 being
Coset of W2 ex v being VECTOR of V st C1 /\ C2 = {v}
proof
assume
A2: V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2;
then
A3: the RLSStruct of V = W1 + W2;
let C1 be Coset of W1, C2 be Coset of W2;
consider v1 being VECTOR of V such that
A4: C1 = v1 + W1 by RLSUB_1:def 6;
v1 in the RLSStruct of V by RLVECT_1:1;
then consider v11,v12 being VECTOR of V such that
A5: v11 in W1 and
A6: v12 in W2 and
A7: v1 = v11 + v12 by A3,Th1;
consider v2 being VECTOR of V such that
A8: C2 = v2 + W2 by RLSUB_1:def 6;
v2 in the RLSStruct of V by RLVECT_1:1;
then consider v21,v22 being VECTOR of V such that
A9: v21 in W1 and
A10: v22 in W2 and
A11: v2 = v21 + v22 by A3,Th1;
take v = v12 + v21;
{v} = C1 /\ C2
proof
thus
A12: {v} c= C1 /\ C2
proof
let x be object;
assume x in {v};
then
A13: x = v by TARSKI:def 1;
v21 = v2 - v22 by A11,Lm14;
then v21 in C2 by A8,A10,RLSUB_1:64;
then C2 = v21 + W2 by RLSUB_1:78;
then
A14: x in C2 by A6,A13;
v12 = v1 - v11 by A7,Lm14;
then v12 in C1 by A4,A5,RLSUB_1:64;
then C1 = v12 + W1 by RLSUB_1:78;
then x in C1 by A9,A13;
hence thesis by A14,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
let x be object;
assume
A15: x in C1 /\ C2;
then C1 meets C2;
then reconsider C = C1 /\ C2 as Coset of W1 /\ W2 by Th42;
A16: v in {v} by TARSKI:def 1;
W1 /\ W2 = (0).V by A2;
then ex u being VECTOR of V st C = {u} by RLSUB_1:73;
hence thesis by A12,A15,A16,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
assume
A17: for C1 being Coset of W1, C2 being Coset of W2 ex v being VECTOR of
V st C1 /\ C2 = {v};
A18: VW2 is Coset of W2 by RLSUB_1:74;
now
let u be VECTOR of V;
consider C1 being Coset of W1 such that
A19: u in C1 by Lm17;
consider v being VECTOR of V such that
A20: C1 /\ VW2 = {v} by A18,A17;
A21: v in {v} by TARSKI:def 1;
then v in C1 by A20,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider v1 being VECTOR of V such that
A22: v1 in W1 and
A23: u - v1 = v by A19,RLSUB_1:80;
v in VW2 by A20,A21,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A24: v in W2 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
u = v1 + v by A23,Lm14;
hence u in W1 + W2 by A24,A22,Th1;
end;
hence the RLSStruct of V = W1 + W2 by Lm12;
VW1 is Coset of W1 by RLSUB_1:74;
then consider v being VECTOR of V such that
A25: VW1 /\ VW2 = {v} by A18,A17;
0.V in W1 by RLSUB_1:17;
then 0.V in VW1 by STRUCT_0:def 5;
then
A26: 0.V in {v} by A25,A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
the carrier of (0).V = {0.V} by RLSUB_1:def 3
.= VW1 /\ VW2 by A25,A26,TARSKI:def 1
.= the carrier of W1 /\ W2 by Def2;
hence thesis by RLSUB_1:30;
end;
::
:: Decomposition of a vector.
::
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W1,W2 being Subspace of V holds W1 + W2 =
the RLSStruct of V iff for v being VECTOR of V ex v1,v2 being VECTOR of V st v1
in W1 & v2 in W2 & v = v1 + v2 by Lm13;
theorem Th45:
V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 & v = v1 + v2 & v = u1 + u2 & v1 in
W1 & u1 in W1 & v2 in W2 & u2 in W2 implies v1 = u1 & v2 = u2
proof
reconsider C2 = v1 + W2 as Coset of W2 by RLSUB_1:def 6;
reconsider C1 = the carrier of W1 as Coset of W1 by RLSUB_1:74;
A1: v1 in C2 by RLSUB_1:43;
assume V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2;
then consider u being VECTOR of V such that
A2: C1 /\ C2 = {u} by Th43;
assume that
A3: v = v1 + v2 & v = u1 + u2 and
A4: v1 in W1 and
A5: u1 in W1 and
A6: v2 in W2 & u2 in W2;
A7: v2 - u2 in W2 by A6,RLSUB_1:23;
v1 in C1 by A4,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then v1 in C1 /\ C2 by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A8: v1 = u by A2,TARSKI:def 1;
u1 = (v1 + v2) - u2 by A3,Lm14
.= v1 + (v2 - u2) by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then
A9: u1 in C2 by A7;
u1 in C1 by A5,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then
A10: u1 in C1 /\ C2 by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence v1 = u1 by A2,A8,TARSKI:def 1;
u1 = u by A10,A2,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A3,A8,RLVECT_1:8;
end;
theorem
V = W1 + W2 & (ex v st for v1,v2,u1,u2 st v = v1 + v2 & v = u1 + u2 &
v1 in W1 & u1 in W1 & v2 in W2 & u2 in W2 holds v1 = u1 & v2 = u2) implies V
is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2
proof
assume
A1: V = W1 + W2;
the carrier of (0).V = {0.V} & (0).V is Subspace of W1 /\ W2 by RLSUB_1:39
,def 3;
then
A2: {0.V} c= the carrier of W1 /\ W2 by RLSUB_1:def 2;
given v such that
A3: for v1,v2,u1,u2 st v = v1 + v2 & v = u1 + u2 & v1 in W1 & u1 in W1 &
v2 in W2 & u2 in W2 holds v1 = u1 & v2 = u2;
assume not thesis;
then W1 /\ W2 <> (0).V by A1;
then the carrier of W1 /\ W2 <> {0.V} by RLSUB_1:def 3;
then {0.V} c< the carrier of W1 /\ W2 by A2;
then consider x being object such that
A4: x in the carrier of W1 /\ W2 and
A5: not x in {0.V} by XBOOLE_0:6;
A6: x <> 0.V by A5,TARSKI:def 1;
A7: x in W1 /\ W2 by A4,STRUCT_0:def 5;
then x in V by RLSUB_1:9;
then reconsider u = x as VECTOR of V by STRUCT_0:def 5;
consider v1,v2 such that
A8: v1 in W1 and
A9: v2 in W2 and
A10: v = v1 + v2 by A1,Lm13;
A11: v = v1 + v2 + 0.V by A10
.= (v1 + v2) + (u - u) by RLVECT_1:15
.= ((v1 + v2) + u) - u by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= ((v1 + u) + v2) - u by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= (v1 + u) + (v2 - u) by RLVECT_1:def 3;
x in W2 by A7,Th3;
then
A12: v2 - u in W2 by A9,RLSUB_1:23;
x in W1 by A7,Th3;
then v1 + u in W1 by A8,RLSUB_1:20;
then v2 - u = v2 by A3,A8,A9,A10,A11,A12
.= v2 - 0.V;
hence thesis by A6,RLVECT_1:23;
end;
reserve t1,t2 for Element of [:the carrier of V, the carrier of V:];
definition
let V;
let v;
let W1,W2;
assume
A1: V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2;
func v |-- (W1,W2) -> Element of [:the carrier of V, the carrier of V:]
means
:Def6:
v = it`1 + it`2 & it`1 in W1 & it`2 in W2;
existence
proof
W1 + W2 = the RLSStruct of V by A1;
then consider v1,v2 such that
A2: v1 in W1 & v2 in W2 & v = v1 + v2 by Lm13;
take [v1,v2];
thus thesis by A2;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let t1,t2;
assume v = t1`1 + t1`2 & t1`1 in W1 & t1`2 in W2 & v = t2`1 + t2`2 & t2`1
in W1 & t2`2 in W2;
then
A3: t1`1 = t2`1 & t1`2 = t2`2 by A1,Th45;
t1 = [t1`1,t1`2] by MCART_1:21;
hence thesis by A3,MCART_1:21;
end;
end;
theorem Th47:
V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 implies (v |-- (W1,W2))`1 = (v |-- (W2,W1))`2
proof
assume
A1: V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2;
then
A2: (v |-- (W1,W2))`2 in W2 by Def6;
A3: V is_the_direct_sum_of W2,W1 by A1,Lm16;
then
A4: v = (v |-- (W2,W1))`2 + (v |-- (W2,W1))`1 & (v |-- (W2,W1))`1 in W2 by Def6
;
A5: (v |-- (W2,W1))`2 in W1 by A3,Def6;
v = (v |-- (W1,W2))`1 + (v |-- (W1,W2))`2 & (v |-- (W1,W2))`1 in W1 by A1
,Def6;
hence thesis by A1,A2,A4,A5,Th45;
end;
theorem Th48:
V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2 implies (v |-- (W1,W2))`2 = (v |-- (W2,W1))`1
proof
assume
A1: V is_the_direct_sum_of W1,W2;
then
A2: (v |-- (W1,W2))`2 in W2 by Def6;
A3: V is_the_direct_sum_of W2,W1 by A1,Lm16;
then
A4: v = (v |-- (W2,W1))`2 + (v |-- (W2,W1))`1 & (v |-- (W2,W1))`1 in W2 by Def6
;
A5: (v |-- (W2,W1))`2 in W1 by A3,Def6;
v = (v |-- (W1,W2))`1 + (v |-- (W1,W2))`2 & (v |-- (W1,W2))`1 in W1 by A1
,Def6;
hence thesis by A1,A2,A4,A5,Th45;
end;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W, v being VECTOR of V, t being Element of [:the carrier of V,
the carrier of V:] holds t`1 + t`2 = v & t`1 in W & t`2 in L implies t = v |--
(W,L)
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W be Subspace of V, L be Linear_Compl of W;
V is_the_direct_sum_of W,L by Th35;
hence thesis by Def6;
end;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W, v being VECTOR of V holds (v |-- (W,L))`1 + (v |-- (W,L))`2
= v
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W be Subspace of V, L be Linear_Compl of W;
V is_the_direct_sum_of W,L by Th35;
hence thesis by Def6;
end;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W, v being VECTOR of V holds (v |-- (W,L))`1 in W & (v |-- (W,L
))`2 in L
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W be Subspace of V, L be Linear_Compl of W;
V is_the_direct_sum_of W,L by Th35;
hence thesis by Def6;
end;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W, v being VECTOR of V holds (v |-- (W,L))`1 = (v |-- (L,W))`2
by Th35,Th47;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being Subspace of V, L being
Linear_Compl of W, v being VECTOR of V holds (v |-- (W,L))`2 = (v |-- (L,W))`1
by Th35,Th48;
::
:: Introduction of operations on set of subspaces as binary operations.
::
reserve A1,A2,B for Element of Subspaces(V);
definition
let V;
func SubJoin(V) -> BinOp of Subspaces(V) means
:Def7:
for A1,A2,W1,W2 st A1 = W1 & A2 = W2 holds it.(A1,A2) = W1 + W2;
existence
proof
defpred P[Element of Subspaces(V),Element of Subspaces(V), Element of
Subspaces(V)] means for W1,W2 st $1 = W1 & $2 = W2 holds $3 = W1 + W2;
A1: for A1,A2 ex B st P[A1,A2,B]
proof
let A1,A2;
reconsider W1 = A1, W2 = A2 as Subspace of V by Def3;
reconsider C = W1 + W2 as Element of Subspaces(V) by Def3;
take C;
thus thesis;
end;
ex o being BinOp of Subspaces(V) st for a,b being Element of Subspaces
(V) holds P[a,b,o.(a,b)] from BINOP_1:sch 3(A1);
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let o1,o2 be BinOp of Subspaces(V);
assume
A2: for A1,A2,W1,W2 st A1 = W1 & A2 = W2 holds o1.(A1,A2) = W1 + W2;
assume
A3: for A1,A2,W1,W2 st A1 = W1 & A2 = W2 holds o2.(A1,A2) = W1 + W2;
now
let x,y be set;
assume
A4: x in Subspaces(V) & y in Subspaces(V);
then reconsider A = x, B = y as Element of Subspaces(V);
reconsider W1 = x, W2 = y as Subspace of V by A4,Def3;
o1.(A,B) = W1 + W2 by A2;
hence o1.(x,y) = o2.(x,y) by A3;
end;
hence thesis by BINOP_1:1;
end;
end;
definition
let V;
func SubMeet(V) -> BinOp of Subspaces(V) means
:Def8:
for A1,A2,W1,W2 st A1 = W1 & A2 = W2 holds it.(A1,A2) = W1 /\ W2;
existence
proof
defpred P[Element of Subspaces(V),Element of Subspaces(V), Element of
Subspaces(V)] means for W1,W2 st $1 = W1 & $2 = W2 holds $3 = W1 /\ W2;
A1: for A1,A2 ex B st P[A1,A2,B]
proof
let A1,A2;
reconsider W1 = A1, W2 = A2 as Subspace of V by Def3;
reconsider C = W1 /\ W2 as Element of Subspaces(V) by Def3;
take C;
thus thesis;
end;
ex o being BinOp of Subspaces(V) st for a,b being Element of Subspaces
(V) holds P[a,b,o.(a,b)] from BINOP_1:sch 3(A1);
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let o1,o2 be BinOp of Subspaces(V);
assume
A2: for A1,A2,W1,W2 st A1 = W1 & A2 = W2 holds o1.(A1,A2) = W1 /\ W2;
assume
A3: for A1,A2,W1,W2 st A1 = W1 & A2 = W2 holds o2.(A1,A2) = W1 /\ W2;
now
let x,y be set;
assume
A4: x in Subspaces(V) & y in Subspaces(V);
then reconsider A = x, B = y as Element of Subspaces(V);
reconsider W1 = x, W2 = y as Subspace of V by A4,Def3;
o1.(A,B) = W1 /\ W2 by A2;
hence o1.(x,y) = o2.(x,y) by A3;
end;
hence thesis by BINOP_1:1;
end;
end;
::
:: Definitional theorems of functions SubJoin, SubMeet.
::
theorem Th54:
LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) is Lattice
proof
set S = LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #);
A1: for A,B being Element of S holds A "/\" B = B "/\" A
proof
let A,B be Element of S;
reconsider W1 = A, W2 = B as Subspace of V by Def3;
thus A "/\" B = W1 /\ W2 by Def8
.= W2 /\ W1 by Th14
.= B "/\" A by Def8;
end;
A2: for A,B being Element of S holds (A "/\" B) "\/" B = B
proof
let A,B be Element of S;
reconsider W1 = A, W2 = B as strict Subspace of V by Def3;
reconsider AB = W1 /\ W2 as Element of S by Def3;
thus (A "/\" B) "\/" B = SubJoin(V).(AB,B) by Def8
.= (W1 /\ W2) + W2 by Def7
.= B by Lm6,RLSUB_1:30;
end;
A3: for A,B,C being Element of S holds A "\/" (B "\/" C) = (A "\/" B) "\/" C
proof
let A,B,C be Element of S;
reconsider W1 = A, W2 = B, W3 = C as Subspace of V by Def3;
reconsider AB = W1 + W2, BC = W2 + W3 as Element of S by Def3;
thus A "\/" (B "\/" C) = SubJoin(V).(A,BC) by Def7
.= W1 + (W2 + W3) by Def7
.= (W1 + W2) + W3 by Th6
.= SubJoin(V).(AB,C) by Def7
.= (A "\/" B) "\/" C by Def7;
end;
A4: for A,B being Element of S holds A "/\" (A "\/" B) = A
proof
let A,B be Element of S;
reconsider W1 = A, W2 = B as strict Subspace of V by Def3;
reconsider AB = W1 + W2 as Element of S by Def3;
thus A "/\" (A "\/" B) = SubMeet(V).(A,AB) by Def7
.= W1 /\ (W1 + W2) by Def8
.= A by Lm7,RLSUB_1:30;
end;
A5: for A,B,C being Element of S holds A "/\" (B "/\" C) = (A "/\" B) "/\" C
proof
let A,B,C be Element of S;
reconsider W1 = A, W2 = B, W3 = C as Subspace of V by Def3;
reconsider AB = W1 /\ W2, BC = W2 /\ W3 as Element of S by Def3;
thus A "/\" (B "/\" C) = SubMeet(V).(A,BC) by Def8
.= W1 /\ (W2 /\ W3) by Def8
.= (W1 /\ W2) /\ W3 by Th15
.= SubMeet(V).(AB,C) by Def8
.= (A "/\" B) "/\" C by Def8;
end;
for A,B being Element of S holds A "\/" B = B "\/" A
proof
let A,B be Element of S;
reconsider W1 = A, W2 = B as Subspace of V by Def3;
thus A "\/" B = W1 + W2 by Def7
.= W2 + W1 by Lm1
.= B "\/" A by Def7;
end;
then S is join-commutative join-associative meet-absorbing meet-commutative
meet-associative join-absorbing by A3,A2,A1,A5,A4;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let V;
cluster LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) -> Lattice-like;
coherence by Th54;
end;
theorem Th55:
for V being RealLinearSpace holds LattStr (# Subspaces(V),
SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) is lower-bounded
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
set S = LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #);
ex C being Element of S st for A being Element of S holds C "/\" A = C &
A "/\" C = C
proof
reconsider C = (0).V as Element of S by Def3;
take C;
let A be Element of S;
reconsider W = A as Subspace of V by Def3;
thus C "/\" A = (0).V /\ W by Def8
.= C by Th18;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th56:
for V being RealLinearSpace holds LattStr (# Subspaces(V),
SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) is upper-bounded
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
set S = LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #);
ex C being Element of S st for A being Element of S holds C "\/" A = C &
A "\/" C = C
proof
reconsider C = (Omega).V as Element of S by Def3;
take C;
let A be Element of S;
reconsider W = A as Subspace of V by Def3;
thus C "\/" A = (Omega).V + W by Def7
.= C by Th11;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th57:
for V being RealLinearSpace holds LattStr (# Subspaces(V),
SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) is 01_Lattice
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) is lower-bounded
upper-bounded Lattice by Th55,Th56;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th58:
for V being RealLinearSpace holds LattStr (# Subspaces(V),
SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) is modular
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
set S = LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #);
for A,B,C being Element of S st A [= C holds A "\/" (B "/\" C) = (A "\/"
B) "/\" C
proof
let A,B,C be Element of S;
reconsider W1 = A, W2 = B, W3 = C as strict Subspace of V by Def3;
assume
A1: A [= C;
reconsider AB = W1 + W2 as Element of S by Def3;
reconsider BC = W2 /\ W3 as Element of S by Def3;
W1 + W3 = A "\/" C by Def7
.= W3 by A1;
then
A2: W1 is Subspace of W3 by Th8;
thus A "\/" (B "/\" C) = SubJoin(V).(A,BC) by Def8
.= W1 + (W2 /\ W3) by Def7
.= (W1 + W2) /\ W3 by A2,Th29
.= SubMeet(V).(AB,C) by Def8
.= (A "\/" B) "/\" C by Def7;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
reserve l for Lattice;
reserve a,b for Element of l;
Lm18: a is_a_complement_of b iff a "\/" b = Top l & a "/\" b = Bottom l;
Lm19: (for a holds a "/\" b = b) implies b = Bottom l
proof
assume
A1: for a holds a "/\" b = b;
then for a holds a "/\" b = b & b "/\" a = b;
then l is lower-bounded;
hence Bottom l = Bottom l "/\" b
.= b by A1;
end;
Lm20: (for a holds a "\/" b = b) implies b = Top l
proof
assume
A1: for a holds a "\/" b = b;
then for a holds b "\/" a = b & a "\/" b = b;
then l is upper-bounded;
hence Top l = Top l "\/" b
.= b by A1;
end;
theorem Th59:
for V being RealLinearSpace holds LattStr (# Subspaces(V),
SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) is complemented
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
reconsider S = LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) as
01_Lattice by Th57;
reconsider S0 = S as 0_Lattice;
reconsider S1 = S as 1_Lattice;
reconsider Z = (0).V, I = (Omega).V as Element of S by Def3;
reconsider Z0 = Z as Element of S0;
reconsider I1 = I as Element of S1;
now
let A be Element of S0;
reconsider W = A as Subspace of V by Def3;
thus A "/\" Z0 = W /\ (0).V by Def8
.= Z0 by Th18;
end;
then
A1: Bottom S = Z by Lm19;
now
let A be Element of S1;
reconsider W = A as Subspace of V by Def3;
thus A "\/" I1 = W + (Omega).V by Def7
.= (Omega).V by Th11;
end;
then
A2: Top S = I by Lm20;
now
let A be Element of S;
reconsider W = A as Subspace of V by Def3;
set L = the strict Linear_Compl of W;
reconsider B9 = L as Element of S by Def3;
take B = B9;
A3: B "/\" A = L /\ W by Def8
.= Bottom S by A1,Th37;
B "\/" A = L + W by Def7
.= Top S by A2,Th36;
hence B is_a_complement_of A by A3,Lm18;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let V;
cluster LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #) -> lower-bounded
upper-bounded modular complemented;
coherence by Th55,Th56,Th58,Th59;
end;
::
:: Theorems concerning operations on subspaces (continuation). Proven
:: on the basis that set of subspaces with operations is a lattice.
::
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W1,W2,W3 being strict Subspace of V holds
W1 is Subspace of W2 implies W1 /\ W3 is Subspace of W2 /\ W3
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace, W1,W2,W3 be strict Subspace of V;
set S = LattStr (# Subspaces(V), SubJoin(V), SubMeet(V) #);
reconsider A = W1, B = W2, C = W3, AC = W1 /\ W3, BC = W2 /\ W3 as Element
of S by Def3;
assume
A1: W1 is Subspace of W2;
A "\/" B = W1 + W2 by Def7
.= B by A1,Th8;
then A [= B;
then A "/\" C [= B "/\" C by LATTICES:9;
then
A2: (A "/\" C) "\/" (B "/\" C) = (B "/\" C);
A3: B "/\" C = W2 /\ W3 by Def8;
(A "/\" C) "\/" (B "/\" C) = SubJoin(V).(SubMeet(V).(A,C),BC) by Def8
.= SubJoin(V).(AC,BC) by Def8
.= (W1 /\ W3) + (W2 /\ W3) by Def7;
hence thesis by A2,A3,Th8;
end;
::
:: Auxiliary theorems.
::
theorem
for V being add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable non
empty addLoopStr, v,v1,v2 being Element of V holds v = v1 + v2 iff v1 = v - v2
by Lm14;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, W being strict Subspace of V holds (for v
being VECTOR of V holds v in W) implies W = the RLSStruct of V by Lm12;
theorem
ex C st v in C by Lm17;
theorem
(for a holds a "/\" b = b) implies b = Bottom l by Lm19;
theorem
(for a holds a "\/" b = b) implies b = Top l by Lm20;